Pseudomonas aeruginosa- An Overview

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

What is Pseudomonas aeruginosa? Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an aerobic microorganism that is a motile, Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria distributed throughout different habitats in the world. It has an absolute aerobic metabolism and thus, gives a positive oxidase reaction. P. aeruginosa is the unique species of this genus which is often used as the type species for the genus. It is a …

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B cell (B lymphocyte)- Definition, Types, Development, Applications

B cell (B lymphocyte)- Definition, Types, Development, Applications

B cell (B lymphocyte) Definition B cell or B lymphocyte is a type of lymphocyte (white blood cells) involved in the humoral immunity of the adaptive immune system as they differentiate into plasma and produce antibodies. Besides, B cells are also considered professional antigen-presenting cells as these can detect antigens present on the surface of bacteria and viruses. Like in …

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Antibody- Definition, Structure, Properties, Types, Classes, Applications

Antibody Types or Classes

Antibody Definition Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are proteins produced by lymphocytes as a result of interaction with antigens. Antibodies are a part of the humoral immune of the adaptive immune system where each antibody identifies a specific antigen and protects the body against it. Antibodies are glycoproteins that bind to antigens with a high degree of specificity and affinity. B …

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Antigen- Definition, Properties, Structure, Types, Examples

Antigen- Definition, Properties, Structure, Types, Examples

Antigen Definition Antigens are molecules or molecular structures that are foreign to the body and generally induce an immune reaction in the form of the production of antibodies against them. In simple words, antigens can be anything that doesn’t belong to the body and are foreign. Even though antigens are usually defined by the induction of an immune response, all …

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Chromosomal Mutation- Definition, Causes, Mechanism, Types, Examples

Chromosomal Mutations

What are Chromosomes? Chromosomes are long thread-like structures of DNA that contain part or all of the genetic material of an organism. Chromosomes exist in a complex three-dimensional structure which is essential in transcriptional regulation. Chromosomes exhibit unique compactness as the unraveled form of the chromosome would be metered in length, but the compact form can be easily placed within …

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Frameshift Mutation- Definition, Causes, Mechanism, Applications, Examples

Frameshift Mutation

Frameshift mutation definition A frameshift mutation is a type of genetic mutation resulting from the alteration of a number of nucleotides in DNA sequences that are not multiple of three. Frameshift mutation occurs as a result of a change in the reading frame of the sequence. Since the codons for gene expression occur in the form of triplets, the difference …

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Silent Mutation- Definition, Causes, Mechanism, Applications, Examples

Silent Mutation

What are Silent mutations? Silent mutations are mutations where the changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA do not produce any observable effect on the organism. The change in nucleotide doesn’t produce a change in the amino acid sequence or the structure and function of the protein. Silent mutations are also termed neutral mutations as these do not cause any …

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Nonsense Mutation- Definition, Causes, Mechanism, Applications, Examples

Nonsense Mutation

Nonsense mutation definition A nonsense mutation is a type of mutation where a premature stop codon is added to a sequence which hinders the further translation of the protein-coding gene. The nonsense mutation is classified as a loss-of-function change where the mutation impairs the production of a particular protein. Nonsense mutation, like most other mutations, can have a range of …

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Missense Mutation- Definition, Causes, Mechanism, Types, Examples

Missense-Mutation

Missense mutation definition A missense mutation is a type of mutation where the alteration of a nucleotide base in a gene sequence results in the translation of different amino acids in the protein. A missense mutation is a type of nonsynonymous substitution in a DNA sequence, indicating that the mutation results in some kind of effect on the resulting sequence. …

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Anabolism vs Catabolism- Definition, 13 Key Differences, Examples

Anabolism vs Catabolism

Anabolism Definition Anabolism is a set of enzyme-catalyzed reactions that synthesize relatively complex molecules from simple structures in living systems. Anabolism is also called biosynthesis as it is involved in the formation of various compounds that are then used as cell components as well as energy. The process of anabolism requires energy; thus, it is an endergonic process, and the …

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Point mutation- Definition, Causes, Mechanism, Types, Examples, Applications

Point mutation

Point mutation definition Point mutation is a type of genetic mutation where one of the base pairs in the DNA sequence is altered either by insertion or deletion. Point mutation, as the name indicates, occurs at a particular point of the DNA sequence as a result of changes in one particular base pair. Usually, point mutations arise as a result …

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Bacillus anthracis- An Overview

Bacillus anthracis

Bacillus anthracis definition Bacillus anthracis is the only obligate pathogenic species of Bacillus and the causative agent of anthrax, which is a common disease of livestock and occasionally occurs in humans. Anthrax is called a zoonotic disease as the disease can transfer between animals and humans via different means. It is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that is commonly found in …

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