1) What is Mycology?
- It is the study of fungi which includes yeasts and molds.
2) Fungi is prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
3) Example of a unicellular eukaryotic organism?
4) What are saprophytes?
- Those organisms which depend on( live on) dead and decaying organism are saprophytes. Example: Fungi
5) What is the difference in the cell membrane of fungi and bacteria?
- Sterol is present in the cell membrane of fungi i.e ergosterol
- In bacteria, there is an absence of sterol except in Mycoplasma
6) What is the cell wall of fungi made up of?
- Peptidoglycan is not present in it.
7) Name symbiotic fungi and it’s use.
- Helps root in absorbing minerals and water from the soil
8) Give examples of yeast:
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae
- Schizosaccharomyces pombe
- Candida albicans
- Cryptococcus neoformans
9) Give examples of mold:
10) What do you mean by Dimorphic fungi?
- Having two forms i.e. Yeast and Mold
- Temperature-dependent pathogenic fungi are yeast-like at 35 °C – 37 °C and mold like at 25 °C- 30 °C.
11) Give examples of Dimorphic fungi?
- Histoplasma capsulatum
- Candida albicans
- Blastomyces dermatitidis
- Coccidioides immitis
- Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
- Penicillium marneffei
- Sporothrix schenckii
12) What do you mean by polymorphic fungi?
- Fungi that have more than one independent form or spore stage in their lifecycle are called polymorphic fungi.
13) Name one of the enzymes present in fungi and it’s use.
- Animals cannot digest the hard part of the plant so fungi as a primary decomposer use cellulase enzyme for the decomposition.
14) What is Thallus?
- The thallus is the body or vegetative structure that is present in fungus.
- Its plural is Thalli
15 ) What are hyphae?
- Long, filamentous, and branching structures present in fungi are called hyphae.
- It’s singular is hypha.
16) What are mycelium?
- The filamentous mass of hypha are called mycelium.
- They are visible to the naked eye.
17) What are septa?
- It is the cross wall present in hyphae.
- It divides the hypha into different distinct parts, uninucleate (one-nucleus ) cell-like units.
18) What are septate hyphae?
- Hyphae which contains septa in it.
19) What are coenocytic hyphae?
- Hyphae which doesn’t contain septa are called coenocytic hyphae.
- Also called Aseptate or Non-septate hyphae.
20) What is hyaline?
- It is non-pigmented hyphae.
21) What is dematiaceous?
- It is darkly pigmented hyphae.
22) What is conidia?
- Conidia mean asexual spores.
23) What are the types of asexual spores?
- Arthroconidia or arthrospores
24) What are the types of sexual spores?
25) What are teleomorphs?
- Teleomorphs are fungi that produce both sexual and asexual spores.
26) What are anamorphs?
- Asexual form in fungi of phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota are anamorphs.
27) What are synanomorphs?
- Fungi that have a different asexual forms of the same fungus are called synanomorphs.
28) What are arthroconidia or arthrospores?
- The spores ( cells) formed by the fragmentation of the hypha are called arthroconidia or arthrospores.
- Fragmentation occurs through the splitting of the cell wall or septum.
29) What are chlamydospores?
- Before the separation, if the cells are surrounded by a thick wall, they are called chlamydospores.
30) What are sporangiospores?
- If the spores develop within a sac at a hyphal tip, they are called sporangiospores.
- The saclike structure is sporangium ( plural: sporangia )
31) What are conidiospores?
- If the spores are produced at the tips or sides of the hypha but are not enclosed in a sac, they are called conidiospores.
32) What are blastospores?
- The spores which are produced from a vegetative mother cell by budding are called blastospores.
33) General feature of Colonies of yeast :
- Opaque or pasty colonies
34) General feature of filamentous fungi or mold :
- Powdery colonies
35) What is the fungal infection termed as?
- Mycosis ( plural mycoses )
36) Medical classification of fungi :
- Superficial and Cutaneous mycoses: fungal infection of the outermost layers of skin and hair
- Subcutaneous mycoses: fungal infection beneath the skin i.e dermis, subcutaneous tissue
- Systemic mycoses: fungal infection deep within the body
- Opportunistic mycoses: a fungal infection caused by the opportunistic pathogen
37) What is otomycosis?
- fungal infection of the ear
38) What is osteomycosis?
- fungal infection of the bone
39) Examples of Superficial and Cutaneous mycoses :
|Pityriasis Versicolor ( dandruff and follicular pityriasis )||Malassezia furfur|
|Tinea pedis ( Athlete’s foot)/ Tinea cruris ( ringworm )||Trichophyton rubrum|
|Piedra (trichosporosis) (black and white )||Piedraia hortae and Trichosporon beigelii|
40) Examples of Sub-cutaneous mycoses :
|Chromoblastomycosis||Phialophora spp. , Cladosporium spp.|
|Mycotic mycetoma||Pseudellescheria spp. , Madurella spp. , Exophila spp. , Cladosporium spp.|
41) Examples of Systemic mycoses :
42) Examples of Opportunistic mycoses :
43) What are the commonly used laboratory media for the isolation of fungi from clinical specimen :
Primary recovery media :
- Brain-heart infusion agar
- Mycosel agar
Differential test media
- Cornmeal agar with Tween 80 and trypan blue
- Czapek’s agar
- Niger seed agar
- Nitrate reduction medium
- Yeast fermentation broth
- Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA)
Reference and Sources
- Tille PM (2014) , Bailey and Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology, 13th edition, Mosby Elsevier
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