Physiological barriers of immune system

Physiological barriers of immune system

The simplest way to avoid infection is to prevent the microorganisms from gaining access to the body. Anatomical and physiological barriers together provide this crucial first line of defense against pathogens. Physiological barriers that contribute to the innate immunity are the body temperature, pH and various soluble secretory products of the mucosa. A. Body temperature While normal body temperature of …

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Bacterial Growth and Factors Affecting Growth of Bacteria

Factors Affecting Growth of Bacteria

With respect to humans, the term growth refers to an increase in size; for example, going from a tiny newborn baby to a large adult. Although bacteria do increase in size before cell division, bacterial growth refers to an increase in the number of organisms rather than an increase in their size. Bacterial growth can be defined as an orderly …

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Mutation- Causes, Mechanisms, Agents and Significance

Mutation- Causes, Mechanisms, Agents and Significance

Mutation is a process that produces a gene or chromosome that differs from the wild type (arbitrary standard for what “normal” is for an organism). It is most commonly defined as a spontaneous permanent change in a gene or chromosome which usually produces a detectable effect in the organism concerned and is transmitted to the offsprings. Mutated gene or chromosome …

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