# Simple Microscope- Definition, Principle, Magnification, Parts, Applications

The optical microscope often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects. There are two basic types of optical microscopes:

1. Simple microscopes.

## Simple Microscope Definition

A simple microscope is one that uses a single lens for magnification, such as a magnifying glass while a compound microscope uses several lenses to enhance the magnification of an object. It uses a lens to enlarge an object through angular magnification alone, giving the viewer an erect enlarged virtual image. The use of a single convex lens or groups of lenses is found in simple magnification devices such as magnifying glass, loupes, and eyepieces for telescopes and microscopes. It is actually a convex lens of small focal length, which is used for seeing the magnified images of small objects.

## Principle of Simple Microscope

A simple microscope works on the principle that when a tiny object is placed within its focus, a virtual, erect, and magnified image of the object is formed at the least distance of distinct vision from the eye held close to the lens.

## Magnification of Simple Microscope

The magnifying power of a simple microscope is given by:

M    =     1    +    D/F

Where D = the least distance of distinct vision
F = focal length of the convex lens

• The focal length of the convex lens should be small because the smaller the focal length of the lens, the greater will be its magnifying power.
• The maximum magnification of a simple microscope is about 10, which means that the object will appear 10 times larger by using the simple microscope of maximum magnification.

## Mechanical Parts of Simple Microscope

These parts support the optical parts and help in their adjustment for focusing the object. They include the following components:

### 1. Metal Stand

• It has a heavy base plate and a vertical rod fitted to it, which provide support and stability to other parts of the microscope.

### 2. Stage

• It is a rectangular metal plate fitted to the vertical rod.
• It has a central hole for light to pass from below.
• Slide with the specimen to be observed is kept on the stage, in such a way that, the specimen remains just on the central hole.
• Some microscopes have a pair of slanting wings projecting from both sides of the stage. They provide support to hand for manipulating the object.

## Optical Parts of Simple Microscope

These parts are involved in passing the light through the object (specimen) and magnifying its size. The components of the optical parts are as follows:

### 1. Mirror

• A plano-convex mirror is fitted below the stage to the vertical rod by means of a frame.
• It focuses the surrounding light on the object to be observed.

### 2. Lens

• A biconvex lens is fitted above the stage, to the vertical rod, by means of a frame.
• It magnifies the size of the object and the enlarged virtual image formed is observed by keeping the eye above it.
• For proper focusing, the lens can be moved up and down by the frame.

## Applications

• It is usually used for the study of microscopic algae, fungi, and biological specimens.
• It is commonly used by watchmakers to see the magnified view of small parts of a watch.
• It is also used by the jewelers to see the magnified view of the fine parts of jewelry.
• It is used to see the enlarged image of letters of a book, textures of fibers, or threads of a cloth.
• It is used to see the magnified view of different particles of different types of soils.
• It is used by palmists to see an enlarged view of the lines of our hands.
• It is used by skin specialists to find out various diseases of the skin.
• It is also used to see the details of stamps and engravings.

## References

1. http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/micro-biology/working-principle-and-parts-of-a-simple-microscope-with-diagrams/26490
2. http://www.funscience.in/study-zone/Physics/OpticalInstruments/SimpleMicroscope.php
3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_microscope#Simple_microscope
4. https://www.slideshare.net/KirtiSharma87/microscope-ppt-63079222

### 6 thoughts on “Simple Microscope- Definition, Principle, Magnification, Parts, Applications”

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