The present curriculum provides the students with updated concepts along with an extended exposure to contemporary areas of the subject. The curriculum also aims at emphasizing the underlying principles that are common to animals, plants and microorganisms as well as highlighting the relationship of Biology with other areas of knowledge. The format allows a simple, clear, sequential flow of concepts. It relates the study of biology to real life through the developments in use of technology. It links the discoveries and innovations in biology to everyday life such as environment, industry, health and agriculture. The updated curriculum also focuses on understanding and application of scientific principles, while ensuring that ample opportunities and scope for learning and appreciating basic concepts continue to be available within its framework.
The prescribed syllabus is expected to:
- promote understanding of basic principles of Biology
- encourage learning of emerging knowledge and its relevance to individual and society
- promote rational/scientific attitude towards issues related to population, environment and development
- enhance awareness about environmental issues, problems and their appropriate solutions
- create awareness amongst the learners about diversity in the living organisms and developing respect for other living beings
- appreciate that the most complex biological phenomena are built on essentially simple processes
It is expected that the students would get an exposure to various branches of Biology in the curriculum in a more contextual and systematic manner as they study its various units.
CBSE Class 11 Biology (Code No. 044) Course Structure
|I||Diversity of Living Organisms||15|
|II||Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals||10|
|III||Cell: Structure and Function||15|
CBSE Class 11 Biology Theory Syllabus 2022-2023
Unit-I Diversity of Living Organisms
Chapter-1: The Living World
Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy and systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature
Chapter-2: Biological Classification
Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.
Chapter-3: Plant Kingdom
Classification of plants into major groups; Salient and distinguishing features and a few examples of Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae (Topics excluded – Angiosperms, Plant Life Cycle and Alternation of Generations)
Chapter-4: Animal Kingdom
Salient features and classification of animals, non-chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level (salient features and at a few examples of each category).
(No live animals or specimen should be displayed.)
Unit-II Structural Organization in Animals and Plants
Chapter-5: Morphology of Flowering Plants
Morphology of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed. Description of family Solanaceae
Chapter-6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants
Anatomy and functions of tissue systems in dicots and monocots.
Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals
Morphology, Anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of frog.
Unit-III Cell: Structure and Function
Chapter-8: Cell-The Unit of Life
Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life, structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; cell envelope; cell membrane, cell wall; cell organelles – structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus.
Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzyme – types, properties, enzyme action. (Topics excluded: Nature of Bond Linking Monomers in a Polymer, Dynamic State of Body Constituents – Concept of Metabolism, Metabolic Basis of Living, The Living State)
Chapter-10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance
Unit-IV Plant Physiology
Chapter-13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
Photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.
Chapter-14: Respiration in Plants
Exchange of gases; cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations – number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.
Chapter-15: Plant – Growth and Development
Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA;
Unit-V Human Physiology
Chapter-17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases
Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans – exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration – asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.
Chapter-18: Body Fluids and Circulation
Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system – Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system – hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.
Chapter-19: Excretory Products and their Elimination
Modes of excretion – ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system – structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function – renin – angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders – uremia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney, kidney transplant.
Chapter-20: Locomotion and Movement
Types of movement – amoeboid, ciliary, flagellar, muscular; types of muscles; skeletal muscle, Types of movement – ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle, contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal systems – myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.
Chapter-21: Neural Control and Coordination
Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse
Chapter-22: Chemical Coordination and Integration
Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system – hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo – and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goitre, diabetes, Addison’s disease.
Note: Diseases related to all the human physiological systems to be taught in brief.
CBSE Class 11 Biology Practicals Evaluation Scheme
|One Major Experiment Part A (Experiment No- 1, 3, 7, 8)||5|
|One Minor Experiment Part A (Experiment No- 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13)||4|
|Slide Preparation Part A (Experiment No- 2, 4, 5)||5|
|Spotting Part B||7|
|Practical Record + Viva Voce||4|
|Project Record + Viva Voce||5|
A: List of Experiments
- Study and describe locally available common flowering plants, from family Solanaceae (Poaceae, Asteraceae or Brassicaceae can be substituted in case of particular geographical location) including dissection and display of floral whorls, anther and ovary to show number of chambers (floral formulae and floral diagrams), type of root (tap and adventitious); type of stem (herbaceous and woody); leaf (arrangement, shape, venation, simple and compound).
- Preparation and study of T.S. of dicot and monocot roots and stems (primary).
- Study of osmosis by potato osmometer.
- Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels (e.g. Rhoeo/lily leaves or flashy scale leaves of onion bulb).
- Study of distribution of stomata on the upper and lower surfaces of leaves.
- Comparative study of the rates of transpiration in the upper and lower surfaces of leaves.
- Test for the presence of sugar, starch, proteins and fats in suitable plant and animal materials.
- Separation of plant pigments through paper chromatography.
- Study of the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds.
- Test for presence of urea in urine.
- Test for presence of sugar in urine.
- Test for presence of albumin in urine.
- Test for presence of bile salts in urine.
B. Study and Observe the following (spotting)
- Parts of a compound microscope.
- Specimens/slides/models and identification with reasons – Bacteria, Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Rhizopus, mushroom, yeast, liverwort, moss, fern, pine, one monocotyledonous plant, one dicotyledonous plant and one lichen.
- Virtual specimens/slides/models and identifying features of – Amoeba, Hydra,liverfluke, Ascaris, leech, earthworm, prawn, silkworm, honey bee, snail, starfish, shark, rohu, frog, lizard, pigeon and rabbit.
- Mitosis in onion root tip cells and animals cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides.
- Different types of inflorescence (cymose and racemose).
- Human skeleton and different types of joints with the help of virtual images/models only.
Prescribed Books for CBSE Class 11 Biology
- Biology Class-XI, Published by NCERT
- Other related books and manuals brought out by NCERT (including multimedia)