Budding is a form of asexual reproduction developing a new individual from the same generative anatomical point of the parent organism restricted to specialized areas. However, in some cases, buds can be produced from any point of the body.
The budding process is observed in various organisms of different species, like fungi, algae, hydra, and some species of coral.
Meanwhile, the formation of a bud varies in these organisms. In fungi, the new individual detaches from their parent organism, while in hydra, the new bud remains attached and grows into a colony.
It is one of the vital processes of the life cycle in some species of animals and plants as well, as it allows for rapid reproduction and colonization of new environments.
Further, it is also an essential part of biotechnology, used to create new strains of microorganisms or produce genetically modified plants.
Budding in Plants
From the early days’ gardeners aimed to improve their gardens by keeping productive trees. Previously plants used to propagate through sexual reproduction, but nowadays, different varieties of plants can reproduce asexually.
Regarding plants, budding is a form of reproduction where a new plant develops from a small outgrowth or bud on the parent plant. The process is known as vegetative propagation, and budding should be performed carefully.
A small piece of shoot carrying a single vegetative bud is sliced from the scion wood and transferred to the rootstocks. Further, the buds are chosen from the axils of leaves, between the leaf stalks or the side of it.
Remember: It is necessary to locate the buds used in budding in the plants as it will determine the orientation of the buds. Further, it will grow much better if placed on the rootstock the right way up!
Types of Budding in Plants
There are many advantages to performing budding in plants. Generally, less scion wood is used as only one plant is necessary. Moreover, the process is quick and reliable, which produces viable plants.
Standard budding techniques are T Budding, Chip budding, and Patch budding. Several variations are available with each method to match individual operators and conditions.
- Tuberous Budding(T-budding): Tuberous budding is one of the fastest methods of propagation used in large quantities. As its name suggests, a small cut is made in the rootstock bark to prepare for the insertion of the scion bud. It is also known as shield budding due to the shape of the small scion shoots that transfers with the buds.
- Chip Budding: Chip budding can be helpful in this scenario when the plant is not receiving suitable growing conditions, due to which the rootstock bar is not lifting. The process is similar to T- budding except that two cuts are made on both rootstocks and scion.
- Patch Budding: This technique is used in species with thick bark or bark that tends to split along the stem, such as walnut and cashew. In this process, a rectangular cut bark is replaced with a similar size patch of scion bark carrying a single bud.
Advantages of Budding in Plants
- The method of budding is fast and efficient, producing genetically identical offspring.
- The budding allows desirable traits such as disease resistance and fruit quality to be preserved and passed on to the next generation.
- It helps in colonial propagation, essential for maintaining uniformity in crops and ornamental plants.
- Further, it increases the yield of crops by allowing for the propagation of high-yielding varieties.
Disadvantages of Budding in Plants
- Budding can transfer diseases from the parent plant to the new offspring, making it necessary to ensure both the rootstock and scion are healthy and diseases free.
- The process may not be successful if the rootstock and scion are incompatible, resulting in graft failure and the loss of the new plants.
- Skill and experience are necessary as technology requires proper use before budding in plants.
- The offspring produced is identical, limiting the genetic diversity of plant populations.
Budding in Hydra
Hydra is a type of cnidarian found in freshwater. The process of asexual reproduction in the hydra involves the formation of a small bud on the body of the parent animal called budding. The bud grows and develops into a new individual that detaches from the parent organism.
Steps Involved in Hydra Budding
- Initiation: This is the first step in forming a small outgrowth on the body of the parent Hydra. The outgrown is called a bud.
- Development: The bud grows in size as the cells within it divide and differentiate. It comprises an outer layer of ectoderm and an inner layer of endoderm.
- Separation of Bud: Further, as the bud develops, it becomes separated from the parent Hydra by a constriction that forms at the base of the bud. The constriction grows to narrow until the bud is entirely isolated.
- Development of New Hydra: The bud develops into a new hydra after separation. Initially, it is smaller than the parent Hydra but continues to grow as it feeds and develops.
- Repeptiition: The budding process is repeated many times in the same parent Hydra resulting in the formation of a colony of genetically identical individuals.
Types of budding in hydra
Budding in Hydra allows for the rapid proliferation of new individuals. Further, it is also used for regeneration allowing Hydra to regrow lost body parts or repair damaged tissue. In Hydra, there are two types of budding.
- Lateral Budding: It is a common type of budding in hydra. A small outgrowth develops on the side of the parent hydra, which grows and develops into a new one.
- Basal Budding: Basal budding is less common than lateral budding. In basal budding, a new bud develops at the base of the parent Hydra observed in response to environmental stress like temperature and food availability.
The budding can be observed in many species of plants and animals. It has many advantages, from rapid propagation to producing new and healthy offspring.
However, it also requires skilled and experienced personnel to perform the budding process. Overall it is a necessary process that allows for efficient reproduction, making it a valuable tool for horticulturists, farmers, and researchers in biology.
- Grafting and Budding: A Practical Guide for Fruit and Nut Plants and Ornamentals – WJ Lewis, DMcE Alexander – Google Books