Biochemical Test of Clostridium botulinum

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(Type A and proteolytic strains of types B and F)

Biochemical Test of Clostridium botulinum

Basic Characteristics Properties (Clostridium botulinum)
Ammonia Production Positive (+ve)
20% Bile Negative (-ve)
Capsule Negative (-ve)
Catalase Negative (-ve)
Flagella Peritrichous
Gelatin Hydrolysis Positive (+ve)
Gram Staining Gram-positive
H2S Positive (+ve)
Hemolysis Positive (+ve). β-hemolytic
Indole Negative (-ve)
Milk Digestion Mostly Positive (+ve)
Meat Digestion Mostly Positive (+ve)
Motility Mostly Positive (+ve)
6.5% NaCl Negative (-ve)
Oxidase Negative (-ve)
Shape Straight to slightly curved rods, 0.6–1.4 × 3.0–20.2 μm.
Spore Positive (+ve)

Fermentation of

Arabinose Negative (-ve)
Cellobiose Negative (-ve)
Fructose Negative (-ve)
Galactose Negative (-ve)
Glucose Positive (+ve)
Glycogen Negative (-ve)
Inulin Negative (-ve)
Lactose Negative (-ve)
Maltose Negative (-ve)
Mannitol Negative (-ve)
Mannose Negative (-ve)
Melibiose Negative (-ve)
Raffinose Negative (-ve)
Rhamnose Negative (-ve)
Ribose Negative (-ve)
Salicin Negative (-ve)
Sorbitol Negative (-ve)
Starch Negative (-ve)
Sucrose Negative (-ve)
Trehalose Negative (-ve)
Xylose Negative (-ve)

Amino Acid Utilization

Arginine Positive (+ve)
Glycine Positive (+ve)
Phenylalanine Positive (+ve)
Proline Positive (+ve)
Serine Positive (+ve)
Tyrosine Positive (+ve)
Tryptophan Positive (+ve)

Enzymatic Reactions

Casein Hydrolysis Positive (+ve)
Esculin Hydrolysis Positive (+ve)
Lecithinase Negative (-ve)
Lipase Positive (+ve)
Superoxide dismutase Positive (+ve)
Tryptophan Deaminase Negative (-ve)


  1. Bergey, D H, William B. Whitman, Vos P. De, George M. Garrity, and D Jones. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology: Vol. 3. New York: Springer, 2009. Print.

About Author

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Sagar Aryal

Sagar Aryal is a microbiologist and a scientific blogger. He is doing his Ph.D. at the Central Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal. He was awarded the DAAD Research Grant to conduct part of his Ph.D. research work for two years (2019-2021) at Helmholtz-Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS), Saarbrucken, Germany. Sagar is interested in research on actinobacteria, myxobacteria, and natural products. He is the Research Head of the Department of Natural Products, Kathmandu Research Institute for Biological Sciences (KRIBS), Lalitpur, Nepal. Sagar has more than ten years of experience in blogging, content writing, and SEO. Sagar was awarded the SfAM Communications Award 2015: Professional Communicator Category from the Society for Applied Microbiology (Now: Applied Microbiology International), Cambridge, United Kingdom (UK). Sagar is also the ASM Young Ambassador to Nepal for the American Society for Microbiology since 2023 onwards.

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