Speciation- definition, causes, process, types, examples

Speciation- definition, causes, process, types, examples

Speciation Definition Speciation is the process of formation of a new genetically independent group of organisms, called species, through the course of evolution. The process of splitting of genetically homogenous population into two or more populations that undergo genetic differentiation and eventual reproductive isolation is called speciation. The entire course of evolution depends upon the … Read more Speciation- definition, causes, process, types, examples

Ketones in urine (ketonuria) and Ketones in urine test

Ketones in urine (ketonuria) and Ketones in urine test

What are ketones? Chemically, ketones are the organic compounds containing carbon, oxygen various carbon-containing substituents. Ketones consist of a carbonyl (C=O) functional group. In our body, ketones are the metabolic end products of fatty acid metabolism. What are ketone bodies? Ketone bodies are the water-soluble particles formed in the liver when the acetyl-CoA formed in the … Read more Ketones in urine (ketonuria) and Ketones in urine test

Transposable elements- definition, types, examples, applications

transposable elements

Transposable elements definition Transposable elements (TE) or transposons can be defined as small, mobile DNA sequences that move around chromosomes with no regard for homology, and insertion of these elements may produce deletions, inversions, chromosomal fusions, and even more complicated rearrangements. Transposons are mobile genetic elements that often carry an antimicrobial resistance gene. These elements … Read more Transposable elements- definition, types, examples, applications

Facilitated Diffusion- definition, principle, factors, examples

Facilitated Diffusion

Facilitated diffusion definition Facilitated diffusion is the process of biological transport in which specific structural components of biological membranes interact with particular solutes or classes of solutes, markedly increasing the rates at which they can cross the membrane. It is a passive-mediated transport in which particles or substances are transported across a biological membrane from … Read more Facilitated Diffusion- definition, principle, factors, examples

Henderson Hasselbalch Equation

Henderson-Hasselbalch-Equation

Henderson Hasselbalch Equation Definition The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is the equation commonly used in chemistry and biology to determine the pH of a solution. This equation shows a relationship between the pH or pOH of the solution, the pKa or pKb, and the concentration of the chemical species involved. This equation was developed independently by the … Read more Henderson Hasselbalch Equation

Lewis Acids and Bases

Examples of Lewis acids and bases

Definition of Lewis Acids and Bases Gilbert Newton Lewis (American, 1923) put forward a broader concept of acids and bases on the basis of electron transfer. This concept is called the Lewis concept. Lewis’s concept eliminates the necessity of the presence of hydrogen in acid, and it accepts not only Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry concept but … Read more Lewis Acids and Bases

Bacterial Transformation- definition, principle, steps, examples

Bacterial Transformation

Bacterial Transformation Definition Bacterial transformation is the transfer of free DNA released from a donor bacterium into the extracellular environment that results in assimilation and usually an expression of the newly acquired trait in a recipient bacterium. This process doesn’t require a living donor cell and only requires free DNA in the environment. The recipient … Read more Bacterial Transformation- definition, principle, steps, examples

Chemical methods of sterilization- Gaseous and Liquid

Chemical methods of sterilization

What is Chemical Sterilization? Chemical Sterilization is the process of removal of microorganisms by the use of chemical bactericidal agents. Even if physical methods of sterilization are more appropriate for effective sterilization, it is not always appropriate to use for heat-sensitive materials like plastics, fiber optics, and biological specimens. Under such conditions, chemical either in … Read more Chemical methods of sterilization- Gaseous and Liquid

Physical methods of sterilization- Heat, Filtration, Radiation

Physical methods of sterilization- Heat, Filtration, Radiation

What is Sterilization? Sterilization is the complete removal of microorganisms from an object or surfaces. Sterilization is obtained when microorganisms are subjected to antimicrobial agents for sufficient time and at optimum conditions. Figure: Physical methods of sterilization. Image created using biorender.com Some physical methods associated with sterilization are explained below: Heat Sterilization Heat sterilization is … Read more Physical methods of sterilization- Heat, Filtration, Radiation

Bacterial Transduction- Definition, Principle, Steps, Examples

Bacterial Transduction- Definition, Principle, Steps, Examples

Transduction Definition Transduction is the transfer of bacterial DNA from a donor to a recipient bacterium via a virus particle. The virus particle that infects bacteria is called a bacteriophage or phage, and the phages used for the transfer of DNA are called transfusing phages. Not all phages are transducing phages. The process of transduction … Read more Bacterial Transduction- Definition, Principle, Steps, Examples