Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain)

Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain)

Hematoxylin and eosin staining technique functions to recognize different types of tissues and their morphological changes, especially in cancer diagnosis. Hematoxylin has a deep blue-purple color and stains nucleic acids by a complex, incompletely understood reaction. Eosin is pink and stains proteins nonspecifically. In a typical tissue, nuclei are stained blue, whereas the cytoplasm and … Read more Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain)

Gram Stain- Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Steps, Results

Gram Stain- Principle, Reagents, Procedure and Result Interpretation

The Gram stain was developed by Christian Gram in 1884 and modified by Hucker in 1921. The objective of Gram Stain This test differentiates the bacteria into Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria, which helps in the classification and differentiation of microorganisms. The Gram stain separates bacteria into two groups: (1) Gram-positive microorganisms that retain the primary … Read more Gram Stain- Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Steps, Results

Albert Staining- Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Results, Interpretation

Albert Staining- Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Results, Interpretation

Special stains have been developed over time for identifying bacteria species, differentiating them morphologically, and even characterizing there very special features. The most common stain being Gram Staining, Acid-fast staining, endospore staining. Each of these stains aims at identifying and characterizing bacteria based on their morphologies. Albert stain is no different. Its application aim at … Read more Albert Staining- Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Results, Interpretation

Endospore Staining- Types, principle, procedure and Interpretation

Endospore Staining- Types, principle, procedure and Interpretation

Introduction A normal bacterial cell is known as a vegetative form of a bacterial cell. It can multiply freely when provided with conducive environmental conditions like the provision of nutrients, temperature, water, and oxygen. But some groups of bacteria, when exposed to unfavorable conditions such us, lack of nutrients, an insufficient supply of oxygen or … Read more Endospore Staining- Types, principle, procedure and Interpretation