Butyrate Disk Test- Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses, Limitations

Butyrate Disk Test- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

What is Butyrate Disk Test? Butyrate disk test is a rapid identification test for the detection of Moraxella catarrhalis on the basis of their ability to utilize bromochloro-indolyl butyrate or 4-methylumbelliferyl butyrate. Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis is now recognized as a major pathogen that causes otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. In addition, a large number of M. catarrhalis strains …

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Biochemical Test of Bacteria

Biochemical Test of Bacteria

Biochemical Test of Bacteria Biochemical reactions are very important in the identification of bacterial isolates and in the identification of different bacterial species. These tests depend on the presence of certain enzymes, such as catalase, oxidase, urease, gelatinase, etc., produced by the bacteria. Different bacteria produce varying spectra of enzymes. For example, some enzymes are necessary for the bacterium’s individual …

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New York City Agar

New York City Agar

Introduction NYC Agar Base medium was originally developed by Fauer, Weisburd and Wilson at the New York City Department of Health for selective isolation of pathogenic Neisseria species from clinical specimens. NYC medium, primarily designed for isolation of pathogenic Neisseria, also readily supports the growth of large-colony mycoplasmas and T-mycoplasmas (Ureaplasma). It is a transparent medium, highly-selective which permits direct, microscopic …

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Neisseria gonorrhoeae- Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Neisseria gonorrhoeae- Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen and is the etiological agent of gonorrhea. In the United States, it is the second most commonly reported communicable disease, with more than 350,000 cases reported annually. Syndromes include cervicitis in women and urethritis, pharyngitis and proctitis in both sexes. If untreated, women may experience severe sequelae of pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic …

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Modified Thayer Martin Agar

Modified Thayer Martin Agar

Modified Thayer Martin Agar Thayer and Martin reported an improvement of the Chocolate Agar formulation that contained antimicrobics vancomycin, colistin and nystatin have been added to minimize overgrowth by contaminants, suppress the growth of saprophytic Neisseria sp., and enhance the growth of pathogenic Neisseria. Martin and Lester later added antibiotic trimethoprim to make the medium further selective and shown to …

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32 Differences between Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Differences between Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Differences between Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, are obligate human pathogens that cause distinctly different disease syndromes. They are both Gram negative diplococci, non-sporing, oxidase positive and difficult to differentiate on morphological and cultural characteristics. However, they can be differentiated on the following grounds: S.N. Character Neisseria gonorrhoeae Neisseria meningitidis 1.       Commonly Called Gonococcus Meningococcus 2.       …

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Biochemical Test of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Biochemical Test of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Biochemical Test of Neisseria gonorrhoeae ­Basic Characteristics Properties ( Neisseria gonorrhoeae) Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Gas Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Hemolysis Negative (-ve) Nitrate Reduction Negative (-ve) Oxidase Positive (+ve) Pigment Negative (-ve) Shape Diplococci Fermentation of DNase Negative (-ve) Fructose Negative (-ve) Glucose Positive (+ve) Lactose Negative (-ve) Maltose Negative (-ve) Mannose …

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Pathogenesis and Clinical Manifestation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Pathogenesis and Clinical Manifestation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Virulence factors or antigenic structures of Neisseria gonorrhoeae A. Pili Pili are the hair like appendages that extend up to several micrometers from the gonococcal surface. It mediates the exchange of genetic material between strains and attachment to human mucosal cell surface, invasion of host cells, and survival through the inhibition of phagocytosis. Two types: types T1-T2 virulent and T3-T5 …

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Habitat and Morphology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Habitat and Morphology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Habitat and Morphology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Habitat of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Human is only the natural host. Found in human urogenital tract. Rectal carriage in healthy individuals. Typically seen in pus cells (intracellular) Found intracellularly in polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or a specific category of white blood cells with varying shapes of nuclei. Morphology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gram –ve cocci Shape is spherical Coffee …

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