Habitat and Morphology of Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Habitat of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Found in nasopharynx as well as in skin lesions, which actually represent a reservoir for the spread of diphtheria. Also found in mouth, throat, nose, skin and wound of infected person. Animals do not easily contract diphtheria. Patients carry toxigenic organism upto 3 months after infection. Morphology of Corynebacterium diphtheriae They are gram +ve rod shaped bacteria. Club shaped Irregular swelling at one end or both end gives them the “Club Shaped” appearance. Thin and slender, long, curved … Read more

Habitat and Morphology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Habitat and Morphology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Habitat of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Human is only the natural host. Found in human urogenital tract. Rectal carriage in healthy individuals. Typically seen in pus cells (intracellular) Found intracellularly in polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or a specific category of white blood cells with varying shapes of nuclei. Morphology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gram –ve cocci Shape is spherical Coffee bean shaped diplococcic Diameter: 0.6 to 1 um Usually seen in pairs with adjacent sides flattened LPS has highly branched basal oligosaccharide structure Contains fimbriae Possess … Read more

Habitat and Morphology of Shigella dysenteriae

Habitat and Morphology of Shigella dysenteriae

Habitat of Shigella dysenteriae They are found worldwide. Humans are only the natural host. They are also found in human intestinal tract. They are mostly found in the area where there is overcrowded. Prevalent in low waste management areas and no safe drinking water supply. Houseflies serves as vectors. They are also found in contaminated food and water. They causes endemic dysentery in Africa, Southeast Asia and Indian Sub-continent. Risk for day care ages (1-4 years) and elderly adults. Custodial … Read more

Habitat and Morphology of Klebsiella pneumoniae

Habitat and Morphology of Klebsiella pneumoniae

Habitat of Klebsiella pneumoniae They are found in mouth, skin and intestinal tract of human beings. They are also found in soil, water and sewage. Also found in bowel and respiratory tract of humans and animals. Found in the hands of hospital personnel. They are responsible for community and hospital acquired infections. People requiring equipment’s such as catheters and ventilators are at high risk. Morphology of Klebsiella pneumoniae They are also called as Friedlander’s bacillus. They are gram -ve rod shaped bacteria. … Read more

Habitat and Morphology of Listeria monocytogenes

Habitat and Morphology of Listeria monocytogenes

Habitat of Listeria monocytogenes They are the natural pathogens of wide range of animals, birds, fish, ticks and crustacean. They are saprophytic in soil, water, sewage and plants decaying. They occasionally colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract (1-10%). They can be isolated from foods for human consumption, including raw and processed meat, dairy products, vegetables and sea fruit products. Listeria monocytogenes can cause mastitis in cows, from which large number of bacteria can be shed in the milk. They are resistance … Read more

Habitat and Morphology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Habitat and Morphology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Habitat of Mycoplasma pneumoniae They are found in the mucosa of upper respiratory tract (UTR) and urogenital tract of humans. Also found in oral cavity. They are also present in sewage, plants, animals, insects, humans and hot springs. They grow slowly than bacteria. They are self-replicating bacteria. They are atypical bacteria. They do not grow in the environment. They depends on the host for nutrient exchange and survival. They are parasitic bacterium. They require sterol for their nutrition. They usually … Read more

Habitat and Morphology of Mycobacterium leprae

Habitat and Morphology of Mycobacterium leprae

Habitat of Mycobacterium leprae They are found in soil, water and air. Found in the soils where the leprosy infected people live. Most of them are non-pathogenic and non-parasitic. Found in warm tropical countries. Mycobacterium leprae are found in the peripheral nerves of humans. Found in the cold parts of the body like hand, feet and nose. They are aerobic intracellular organisms. They are also found in the Armadillos. They grow on temperature 30 to 33°C and pH 5.1 to … Read more

Habitat and Morphology of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Habitat and Morphology of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Habitat of Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus pneumoniae are found worldwide. Found in primates, livestock and felines. They are the part of normal flora of upper respiratory tract infection in humans. Mostly found in throat and nasal passage. They infection mostly children in winter seasons. They are Mesophilic, 30 to 35°C. Morphology of Streptococcus pneumoniae They are gram positive bacteria. May lose gram +ve character in older cultures and appear gram –ve. They are non-sporing and non-motile bacteria. May have pili for … Read more

Habitat and Morphology of Gardnerella vaginalis

Habitat and Morphology of Gardnerella vaginalis

Habitat of Gardnerella vaginalis Normal flora in 40% female (small amount) Found in urine Rarely in blood and wound Found in the anorectal flora of healthy adults of both sexes and as well as children. Isolated from normal vagina of reproductive age female & male urethra (partners of women with bacterial vaginosis). Optimum pH for growth in between 6 and 7. Implicated in case of cervical cancer and infection in urinary tract Frequently present in vagina of asymptomatic patients. Morphology of Gardnerella … Read more