Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Chromosomes

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Chromosomes

The genome of an organism encompasses all of the genes of that organism. Gene is a distinct sequence of nucleotides forming part of a chromosome, the order of which determines the order of monomers in a polypeptide or nucleic acid molecule. Thus a protein-coding gene is defined as a region of DNA that encodes a single polypeptide or a set …

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Habitat and Morphology of Acinetobacter baumannii

Habitat and Morphology of Acinetobacter baumannii

Habitat of Acinetobacter baumannii The first Acinetobacter found in soil was discovered in 1911 by M.W. Beijerinck. It is associated with aquatics environment. It has been recovered from soil, water, animals, and humans. Found in the respiratory and oropharynx secretions of infected individuals. Found in hospital environment and accounts for 10% nosocomial infections in ICU. It has been suggested that human …

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Structure and Genome of Human Cytomegalo Virus

Structure and Genome of Human Cytomegalo Virus

Structure of Human Cytomegalo Virus Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a member of the herpes virus family which fall under the beta herpes subfamily. CMV is spherical in shape with icosahedral symmetry. Figure: Structure of Human Cytomegalo Virus, Source: Dr. Marko Reschke, Marburg, Germany The icosahedral protein capsid with average diameter 100 nm consists of 162 hollow hexagonal and pentagonal capsomeres with an …

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Habitat and Morphology of Shigella dysenteriae

Habitat and Morphology of Shigella dysenteriae

Habitat of Shigella dysenteriae They are found worldwide. Humans are only the natural host. They are also found in human intestinal tract. They are mostly found in the area where there is overcrowded. Prevalent in low waste management areas and no safe drinking water supply. Houseflies serves as vectors. They are also found in contaminated food and water. They causes …

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Habitat and Morphology of Klebsiella pneumoniae

Habitat and Morphology of Klebsiella pneumoniae

Habitat of Klebsiella pneumoniae They are found in mouth, skin and intestinal tract of human beings. They are also found in soil, water and sewage. Also found in bowel and respiratory tract of humans and animals. Found in the hands of hospital personnel. They are responsible for community and hospital acquired infections. People requiring equipment’s such as catheters and ventilators are …

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Habitat and Morphology of Listeria monocytogenes

Habitat and Morphology of Listeria monocytogenes

Habitat of Listeria monocytogenes They are the natural pathogens of wide range of animals, birds, fish, ticks and crustacean. They are saprophytic in soil, water, sewage and plants decaying. They occasionally colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract (1-10%). They can be isolated from foods for human consumption, including raw and processed meat, dairy products, vegetables and sea fruit products. Listeria monocytogenes …

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Habitat and Morphology of Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Habitat and Morphology of Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Habitat of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Found in nasopharynx as well as in skin lesions, which actually represent a reservoir for the spread of diphtheria. Also found in mouth, throat, nose, skin and wound of infected person. Animals do not easily contract diphtheria. Patients carry toxigenic organism upto 3 months after infection. Morphology of Corynebacterium diphtheriae They are gram +ve rod shaped bacteria. Club …

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