Structure of Measles Virus
- Measles virus is the prototypic member of the Morbillivirus genus of the family Paramyxoviridae.
- Measles virus is a spherical with a diameter ranging from 120 to 1000 nm and has two major structural components: one is the helical ribonucleoprotein (RNP) core formed by the association of the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P) and large protein (L) with the viral genome, the other is the cellular membrane-derived lipid envelope surrounding the RNP core.
- Measles virus have two glycoproteins spikes that play significant role in pathogenesis: F (fusion) protein and the H (haemagglutinin) protein.
- Fusion protein are responsible for fusion of virus with host cell membranes and viral penetration.
- Haemagglutinin protein are responsible for binding of virus to cells and it is antigen against which neutralizing antibodies are formed.
- Large protein (L) and nucleoprotein (N) together form the nucleocapsid that’s covers the viral RNA.
- The viral genome is non segmented, negative sense single stranded RNA.
Genome of Measles Virus
- The measles virus genome is non segmented, negative sense single stranded RNA.
- The RNA genome consists of approximately 16,000 nucleotides and is enclosed in a lipid-containing envelope derived from the host cell.
- The genome begins with a 52 nucleotides non-coding region known as the leader and ends with a 37 nucleotides non-coding region known as the trailer, both of which are essential for the transcription and replication of the genome.
- The organization of the MeV genome comprises of six genes coding for eight viral proteins arranged as 3′-N,P,V,C,M,F,H,L-5′, each flanked by gene-end and gene-start sequences.
- The genome encodes eight proteins, two of which (V and C) are nonstructural proteins and are transcribed from the phosphoprotein (P) gene.
- Of the six structural proteins, large protein (L), and nucleoprotein (N) form the nucleocapsid housing the viral RNA.
- The hemagglutinin protein (H), fusion protein (F), and matrix protein (M), together with lipids from the host cell membrane, form the viral envelope.
Structure and Genome of Measles Virus
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