Biochemical Test of Proteus mirabilis

Biochemical Test of Proteus mirabilis

Biochemical Test of Proteus mirabilis ­Basic Characteristics Properties ( Proteus mirabilis ) Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Flagella Positive (+ve) Gas from Glucose Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Positive (+ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Positive (+ve) H2S Positive (+ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Positive (+ve) MR (Methyl Red) Positive (+ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) …

Read moreBiochemical Test of Proteus mirabilis

Biochemical Test of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Biochemical Test of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Biochemical Test of Streptococcus pneumoniae Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus pneumoniae) Bile Solubility Positive (+ve) Catalase Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Alfa Hemolysis Motility Non-motile OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative anaerobes Oxidase Negative (-ve) Shape Diplococci Spore Non-sporing Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Negative (-ve) Fermentation of Arabinose Positive (+ve) Arbutin Negative (-ve) Dulcitol Negative (-ve) Erythritol Positive (+ve) Fructose …

Read moreBiochemical Test of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Ebola Virus- An Overview

Ebola Virus- Structure, Genome, Epidemiology, Transmission, Replication, Pathogenesis, Clinical Manifestation, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control

Structure of Ebola Virus It falls under the Filoviridae family. The virion is filamentous, enveloped measuring 800 nm length and 80 nm in diameter. It comprises of negative sense, single stranded RNA genome. Structural proteins associated with the nucleocapsid are the nucleoprotein (NP), VP30, VP35, and the polymerase (L) protein. Membrane-associated proteins are the matrix protein (VP40), VP24, and the GP …

Read moreEbola Virus- An Overview

Torovirus- An Overview

Classification of Torovirus Group IV: ssRNA positive strand virus Order: Nidovirales Family: Coronaviridae Subfamily: Toronavirinae Genus: Torovirus Structure of Torovirus Torovirusis a genus of viruses in the order Nidovirales, in the family Coronaviridae, in the subfamily Torovirinae. Toroviruses are pleomorphic, enveloped particles, 120–140 nm in diameter. The virus particle has surface spikes proteins that are club-shaped 15 to 20 nm in length and are evenly dispersed over the …

Read moreTorovirus- An Overview

Hepatitis A Virus- An Overview

Clinical Manifestations of Hepatitis A Virus

Structure of Hepatitis A Virus HAV (Hepatitis A Virus) is a distinct member of the picornavirus family, assigned to genus hepatovirus. HAV is a 27 nm to 32 nm spherical particle with icosahedral symmetry containing a linear single-stranded RNA genome with a size of 7.5 kb and non-enveloped. Hepatitis A virions have a primary buoyant density of 1.32 to 1.34 g/cc …

Read moreHepatitis A Virus- An Overview

Rotavirus- An Overview

Rota Virus- Structure, Genome, Epidemiology, Replication, Pathogenesis, Clinical Manifestation, Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Vaccination, Prevention and Control

Structure of Rotavirus The name rotavirus is derived from the Latin word rota, meaning “wheel,” which refers to the virion’s appearance in negative-stained electron micrographs. Rotavirus falls under Reoviridae family and subfamily Sedoreovirinae, which appear more smooth, lacking the large surface projections. The virion has icosahedral symmetry and is triple-layered capsid lacking an envelope and measures 70–75 nm in diameter. …

Read moreRotavirus- An Overview

Types of Complement Fixation Test

Types of Complement Fixation Test

Complement fixation test is based on the principle that when antigen and antibodies of the IgM or the IgG classes are mixed, complement is “fixed” to the antigen-antibody complex. If this occurs on the surface of RBCs, the complement cascade will be activated and hemolysis will occur. Indirect complement fixation test It is used when serums which can’t fix guinea …

Read moreTypes of Complement Fixation Test

Virulence factors, Pathogenesis and Clinical manifestations of Legionella pneumophila

 Virulence factors, Pathogenesis and Clinical manifestations of Legionella pneumophila

 Virulence factors of Legionella pneumophila Heat shock protein 60: enhances invasion and cytokine expression in macrophages. Outer membrane protein: binding with and delivery of packaged materials into the eukaryotic cells. inhibit the fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes. Macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip) protein promotes adherence and phagocytosis. Genes encoding for the type II secretion systems required for intracellular growth is required for full …

Read moreVirulence factors, Pathogenesis and Clinical manifestations of Legionella pneumophila

Rabies Virus- An Overview

Rabies Virus

Structure of Rabies Virus The virus is enveloped, rod shaped particles measuring 75 × 180 nm. Mature virion appears either as bullet shaped particles with one rounded and one flattened end or as bacilliform particles. The particles are surrounded by a membranous lipid envelope. The particles have a buoyant density in CsCl of about 1.19 g/cm3. The virion outer surface is …

Read moreRabies Virus- An Overview

Hepatitis C virus- An Overview

Hepatitis C virus

Structure of Hepatitis C virus Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a RNA virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae, genus Hepacivirus. The HCV virion is 55-65 nm in diameter containing in it a 9.6 kb positive sense single-stranded RNA genome composed of a long open reading frame (ORF) flanked by untranslated regions (UTR’s) at both the ends. The genome of HCV is …

Read moreHepatitis C virus- An Overview