Monoclonal Antibodies- Types, Uses and Limitations

Monoclonal Antibodies- Types, Uses and Limitations

Monoclonal antibodies They are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell. Monoclonal antibodies can have monovalent affinity, in that they bind to the same epitope. A technique to produce monoclonal antibodies was devised by Georges Kohler and Cesar Milstein in 1975. The method relies on … Read moreMonoclonal Antibodies- Types, Uses and Limitations

Laboratory diagnosis of Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum

Laboratory diagnosis of Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum

Laboratory diagnosis of Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum Specimen Samples collected from ulcers and lesions should not be contaminated with blood, microorganisms, or tissue debris. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) samples should be collected on a sterile Dacron or cotton swab and placed in a cryotube containing nucleic acid transport medium or universal transport medium. Tissue … Read moreLaboratory diagnosis of Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum

Laboratory diagnosis of Listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes

Laboratory diagnosis of Listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes

Laboratory diagnosis of Listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes Specimens: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Blood Microscopy Gram-stain preparations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) typically show no organisms because the bacteria are generally present in concentrations below the limit of detection (e.g., 10ˆ4 bacteria per milliliter CSF or less). If the Gram stain shows organisms, they are intracellular and extracellular … Read moreLaboratory diagnosis of Listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes

Introduction to Antigen

Introduction to Antigen

Antigens are specifically defined as molecules that interact specifically with immunoglobulin receptor of B-cell (or T-cell when complexed with MHC) or antigen is any substance that may be specifically bound by an antibody molecule or T cell receptor. Antigen is a substance which when introduced into living animal evokes specific immune response either by producing … Read moreIntroduction to Antigen

Western blotting- Introduction, Principle and Applications

Western blotting- Introduction, Principle and Applications

Introduction Western blot is the analytical technique used in molecular biology, immunogenetics and other molecular biology to detect specific proteins in a sample of tissue homogenate or extract. Western blotting is called so as the procedure is similar to Southern blotting. While Southern blotting is done to detect DNA, Western blotting is done for the … Read moreWestern blotting- Introduction, Principle and Applications

Pathogenesis and Clinical manifestations of Treponema pallidum

Pathogenesis and Clinical manifestations of Treponema pallidum

Pathogenesis of Treponema pallidum The two major routes of transmission of Treponema pallidum are sexual and transplacental. Sexual exposure to a person who has an active syphilitic chancre carries a high probability of acquiring syphilis. The organisms enter a susceptible host by penetration of intact mucous membranes or the minute abrasions in the skin surface … Read morePathogenesis and Clinical manifestations of Treponema pallidum

Indirect ELISA- Introduction, Steps, Advantages and Protocol

Indirect ELISA- Introduction, Steps, Advantages and Protocol

Introduction Indirect ELISA is a two-step ELISA which involves two binding process of primary antibody and labeled secondary antibody. The primary antibody is incubated with the antigen followed by the incubation with the secondary antibody. However, this may lead to nonspecific signals because of cross-reaction that the secondary antibody may cause. In the indirect ELISA test, the … Read moreIndirect ELISA- Introduction, Steps, Advantages and Protocol

Pathogenesis and Clinical manifestation of Gardenerella vaginalis

Pathogenesis and Clinical manifestation of Gardenerella vaginalis

Pathogenesis of Gardenerella vaginalis A. Adherence of G. vaginalis to Host Epithelium: Initial Steps in Invasion The initial steps of establishing infection include adherence to host receptor sites, production of cytotoxic substances specific for host cells, and biofilm formation. vaginais  produces  vaginolysin, a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, for human cells and encodes a pore-forming toxin that binds … Read morePathogenesis and Clinical manifestation of Gardenerella vaginalis

Laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Tuberculosis

Laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Tuberculosis

Laboratory diagnosis of Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Specimen and processing sputum, bronchial washings, brushings or biopsies or early morning gastric aspirates, Cerebospinal Fluid (CSF), urine Specimens from sputum and other nonsterile sites should be liquefied with N-acetyl-L-cysteine decontaminated with NaOH (kills many other bacteria and fungi), neutralized with buffer, and concentrated by centrifugation. Specimens … Read moreLaboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Tuberculosis

Laboratory diagnosis of Bacterial vaginosis caused by Gardnerella vaginalis

Laboratory diagnosis of Bacterial vaginosis caused by Gardnerella vaginalis Specimen: Vaginal discharge specimen A. Direct Microscopic Examination Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is characterized by a foul-smelling discharge. A diagnosis/confirmation is done microscopically by examination of gram stains to detect change in vaginal ecology. A smear of vaginal fluid or vaginal swab is gram stained which reveals … Read moreLaboratory diagnosis of Bacterial vaginosis caused by Gardnerella vaginalis