Type 1 (Anaphylactic) Hypersensitivity Reaction

Type 1 (Anaphylactic) Hypersensitivity Reaction

Hypersensitivity is increased reactivity or increased sensitivity by the animal body to an antigen to which it has been previously exposed. The most widely adopted current classification is that of Coombs and Gellthat designates immunoglobulin-mediated (immediate) hypersensitivity reactions as types … Read more

Flagella and Pili (Fimbriae)

Flagella and Pili (Fimbriae)

Flagella Flagella are protein filaments that extend like long tails from the cell membranes of certain gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. These tails, which are several times the length of the bacterial cell, move the bacteria around. Source: Wikipedia The flagellum … Read more

Lysine Iron Agar Test

Result Interpretation of Lysine Iron Agar Test

Objective of Lysine Iron Agar Test To differentiate gram-negative bacilli based on decarboxylation or deamination of lysine and the formation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Principle of Lysine Iron Agar Test Lysine iron agar (LIA) contains lysine, peptones, a small amount of glucose, ferric … Read more

Biochemical Test of Helicobacter pylori

Biochemical Test of Helicobacter pylori Basic Characteristics Properties (Helicobacter pylori) Capsule Non-Capsulated Catalase Positive (+ve) Flagella Flagellated Glycine (1%) Tolerance Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth at 25, 30 and 45°C Negative (-ve) Growth at 35 and 40°C Positive … Read more

Litmus Milk Medium Test

Result Interpretation of Litmus Milk Medium Test

Objective of Litmus Milk Medium Test To differentiate microorganisms based on various metabolic reactions in litmus milk, including fermentation, reduction, clot formation, digestion, and the formation of gas.  Litmus Milk is used primarily to differentiate members within the genus Clostridium. It … Read more

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Production Test

Result Interpretation of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Production Test

Objective of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Production Test To determine the ability of the organism to produce hydrogen sulphide. Principle of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Production Test Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) production test is used for the detection of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) gas produced by an … Read more

Biochemical Test of Campylobacter jejuni

Biochemical Test of Campylobacter jejuni

Biochemical Test of Campylobacter jejuni Basic Characteristics Properties (Campylobacter jejuni) Capsule Capsulated Catalase Positive (+ve) Flagella Flagellated Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth at 25°C Negative (-ve) Growth at 37°C Positive (+ve) Growth at 42°C Positive (+ve) Growth on MacConkey Agar … Read more

Rh Blood Group System

The second major blood grouping system is the Rhesus (Rh) system. Philip Levine, in 1939, discovered that the sera of most women who gave birth to infants with hemolytic disease contained an antibody that reacted with the red cells of … Read more

Rapid Method for Enumeration of E. coli Biotype I

Rapid Method for Enumeration of E. coli Biotype I

This method is modified by Anderson and Parker. Prepare serial tenfold dilutions in peptone water of food. Aseptically transfer sterile cellulose acetate membranes to the surface or dried glutamate agar. Transfer duplicate 1.0 mL aliquots of each dilution to cellulose … Read more

Biochemical Test of Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Biochemical Test of Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Biochemical Test of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Basic Characteristics Properties (Corynebacterium diphtheriae) CAMP Negative (-ve) Capsule Non-Capsulated Catalase Positive (+ve) Cetrimide Test Negative (-ve) Citrate Negative (-ve) Coagulase Negative (-ve) Flagella Non-Flagellated Gas Variable Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) … Read more

Biochemical Test of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Biochemical Test of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Biochemical Test of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Basic Characteristics Properties (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) Capsule Non-Capsulated Catalase Positive (+ve) Cetrimide Test Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Coagulase Negative (-ve) Flagella Flagellated (Single) Gas Negative (-ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Positive (+ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) H2S … Read more

Candida albicans- An Overview

Habitat of Candida albicans Normal Habitat: mucosal membranes of human and other warm blooded animals. Also found in the gut, the vagina or also in the surface of the skin. Found in the digestive tract of birds also. Isolated from … Read more

What is Southern Blotting?

Southern Blot- Principle, Steps and Applications

Southern Blotting Definition The analytical technique that involves the transfer of a specific DNA, RNA or a protein separated on gel to a carrier membrane, for their detection or identification is termed as blotting. The process of transfer of the … Read more

Biochemical Test of Actinomyces israelii

Biochemical Test of Actinomyces israelii Basic Characteristics Properties (Actinomyces israelii) CAMP Negative (-ve) Capsule Non-Capsulated Catalase Negative (-ve) Flagella Negative (-ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) H2S Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Negative (-ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Non-Motile … Read more

Cytokines- Mechanism of action and Functions

Cytokines- Mechanism of action and Functions

Cytokines Cytokines are a family of small proteins that mediate an organism’s response to injury or infection. Cytokines operate by transmitting signals between cells in an organism. Minute quantities of cytokines are secreted, each by a single cell type, and … Read more