Laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Leptospira interrogans

Laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Leptospira interrogans

Laboratory diagnosis of Leptospira interrogans Specimens Specimens consist of aseptically collected blood in a heparin tube, CSF, urine, or tissues for microscopic examination and culture. Serum is collected for agglutination tests. Microscopy As leptospires are thin, they are at the limit of the resolving power of a light microscope and thus cannot be seen by … Read moreLaboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Leptospira interrogans

Pathogenesis and Clinical manifestations of Francisella tularensis

Pathogenesis and Clinical manifestations of Francisella tularensis

Pathogenesis of Francisella tularensis Francisella tularensis is carried by many species of wild rodents, rabbits, beavers. Humans become infected by handling the carcasses or skin of infected animals, by inhaling infective aerosols or ingesting contaminated water, through insect vectors and by being bitten by carnivores that have themselves eaten infected animals. Humans are infected by … Read morePathogenesis and Clinical manifestations of Francisella tularensis

Types of antigen on the basis of source and immune response

Types of antigen on the basis of source and immune response

On basis of Source/Origin Exogenous antigens: These are antigens which are foreign to host body hence are also called foreign antigens. These are antigens that enters the body of the organism from the outside, e.g. through inhalation, ingestion, or injection. These antigens enters the body or system and start circulating in the body fluids and trapped by the APCs … Read moreTypes of antigen on the basis of source and immune response

Laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi

Laboratory diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi

Laboratory diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi Specimen Blood, cerebrospinal fluid, joint fluid, tissue biopsies Body fluids should be transported without any preservatives. Tissue biopsy specimens should be placed in sterile saline to prevent drying. Direct detection methods The organisms can be seen directly in wet preparations of peripheral blood (mixed with equal parts of sterile, non … Read moreLaboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Borrelia burgdorferi

Pathogenesis and Clinical manifestations of Rickettsia rickettsii

Pathogenesis and Clinical manifestations of Rickettsia rickettsii

Pathogenesis of Rickettsia rickettsii Human gets infected when infected adult tick inoculates Rickettsia rickettsii into the skin while taking a blood meal. It usually takes 6 hours of attachment and feeding before rickettsiae are transmitted to the host. Infection can also be transmitted occasionally by scratching and rubbing infectious tick feces into the abraded skin. After … Read morePathogenesis and Clinical manifestations of Rickettsia rickettsii

Lymphocytes- Types and Functions

Lymphocytes- Types and Functions

Lymphocytes are the cells that specifically recognize and respond to foreign antigens and are mediators of humoral and cellular immunity. Lymphocytes, the unique cells of adaptive immunity, are the only cells in the body that express clonally distributed antigen receptors, each specific for a different antigenic determinant. Each clone of T and B lymphocytes expresses … Read moreLymphocytes- Types and Functions

Laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Rickettsia rickettsii

Laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Rickettsia rickettsii

Laboratory diagnosis of Rickettsia rickettsii Specimen: Skin biopsies, serum Direct detection method Although Rickettsiae stain poorly with Gram stain, they can be stained with Giemsa or Gimenez stains. Direct detection of R. rickettsii antigen in skin biopsy specimens of the rash from infected patients by direct fluorescent antibody test using the specific anti-rickettsial antibodies is a rapid … Read moreLaboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Rickettsia rickettsii

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)- Types and Importance

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)- Types and Importance

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Both T and B cells use surface molecules to recognize antigen, they accomplish this in very different ways. In contrast to antibodies or B-cell receptors, which can recognize an antigen alone, T-cell receptors only recognize pieces of antigen that are positioned on the surface of other cells. These antigen pieces are … Read moreMajor Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)- Types and Importance

Pathogenesis and Clinical manifestations of Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Pathogenesis and Clinical manifestations of Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Pathogenesis of Corynebacterium diphtheriae In nature, C diphtheriae occurs in the respiratory tract, in wounds, or on the skin of infected persons or normal carriers. It is spread by droplets or by contact to susceptible individuals; the bacilli then grow on mucous membranes or in skin abrasions, and those that are toxigenic start producing toxin. … Read morePathogenesis and Clinical manifestations of Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Laboratory diagnosis of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Specimen Dacron swabs from the nose, throat, or other suspected lesions must be obtained before antimicrobial drugs are administered. Swabs should be collected from beneath any visible membrane. The swab should then be placed in semisolid transport media such as Amies. Microscopy Smears stained with alkaline methylene blue or Gram stain … Read moreLaboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Corynebacterium diphtheriae