Optochin Susceptibility Test- Principle, Procedure and Results

Optochin Susceptibility Test- Principle, Procedure and Results

Objectives of Optochin Susceptibility Test To determine the effect of Optochin (ethyl hydrocupreine hydrochloride) on an organism. To differentiate between alpha hemolytic Streptococcus pneumoniae from other alpha hemolytic viridans Streptococci. Principle of Optochin Susceptibility Test Optochin (ethylhydrocupreine hydrochloride) is a chemical and is completely soluble in water. Optochin is an antibiotic that interferes with the ATPase and production of … Read moreOptochin Susceptibility Test- Principle, Procedure and Results

Bone Marrow- Types, Structure and Functions

Bone Marrow- Types, Structure and Functions

Bone Marrow is the soft, highly vascular and flexible connective tissue within bone cavities which serve as the primary site of new blood cell production or hematopoiesis. In adult humans, bone marrow is primarily located in the ribs, vertebrae, sternum, and bones of the pelvis. The majority of the cell types involved in the immune system is produced … Read moreBone Marrow- Types, Structure and Functions

Passive immunization with advantages and drawbacks

Passive immunization with advantages and drawbacks

Immunization is the process whereby a person naturally acquires or is induced to acquire immunity or resistance to an infectious disease. An individual can acquire such immunity either passively or actively and thus immunization may be active or passive immunization. In passive immunization, a person receives antibodies or lymphocytes that have been produced by another individual’s immune system while in … Read morePassive immunization with advantages and drawbacks

Lymph Nodes- Structure and Functions

Lymph Nodes- Structure and Functions

Lymph nodes are small solid structures placed at varying points along the lymphatic system such as the groin, armpit and mesentery. They contain both T and B lymphocytes as well as accessory cells and are primarily responsible for mounting immune responses against foreign antigens entering the tissues. Lymph nodes are situated at strategic positions throughout … Read moreLymph Nodes- Structure and Functions

Major Histocompatibility Complex II- Structure, Mechanism and Functions

Major Histocompatibility Complex II- Structure, Mechanism and Functions

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a part of the genome of all vertebrates that code for molecules which are important in immune recognition. In humans, the MHC is a cluster of genes located on chromosome 6 which code for MHC proteins also called Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA). MHC proteins are a set of cell surface proteins essential … Read moreMajor Histocompatibility Complex II- Structure, Mechanism and Functions

Nitrate Reduction Test- Objectives, Principle, Procedure and Results

Result Interpretation of Nitrate Reduction Test

Objectives of Nitrate Reduction Test To determine the ability organism to produce an enzyme called nitrate reductase, resulting in the reduction of nitrate (NO3). It also tests the ability of organisms to perform nitrification on nitrate and nitrite to produce molecular nitrogen. Principle of Nitrate Reduction Test All members of the Enterobacteriaceae family reduce nitrate to nitrite, but … Read moreNitrate Reduction Test- Objectives, Principle, Procedure and Results

Thymus- Structure and Functions

Thymus- Structure and Functions

The thymus is a lymphocyte-rich, bilobed, encapsulated organ located behind the sternum, above and in front of the heart. The activity of the thymus is maximal in the fetus and in early childhood and then undergoes atrophy at puberty although never totally disappearing. The thymus is derived from the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches during … Read moreThymus- Structure and Functions

Type IV (Cell Mediated) Hypersensitivity- Mechanism and Examples

Type IV (Cell Mediated) Hypersensitivity- Mechanism and Examples

Hypersensitivity refers to increased reactivity or exaggerated immune response of a host to an antigen to which it has been previously exposed. According to the most widely accepted classification of Gell and Coombs, there are four main types of hypersensitivity reactions as type I, II, III and IV. Type I, II and III are immunoglobulin-mediated … Read moreType IV (Cell Mediated) Hypersensitivity- Mechanism and Examples

Major Histocompatibility Complex I- Structure, Mechanism and Functions

Major Histocompatibility Complex I- Structure, Mechanism and Functions

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a part of the genome of all vertebrates that code for molecules which are important in immune recognition. In humans, the MHC is a cluster of genes located on chromosome 6 which code for MHC proteins also called Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA). MHC proteins are a set of cell surface proteins essential … Read moreMajor Histocompatibility Complex I- Structure, Mechanism and Functions

Type III (Immune Complex) Hypersensitivity- Mechanism and Examples

Type III (Immune Complex) Hypersensitivity- Mechanism and Examples

The term hypersensitivity denotes a condition in which an exaggerated immune response of a host results in inappropriate reactions that leads to destruction of host tissues. According to the most widely accepted classification of Gell and Coombs, there are four main types of hypersensitivity reactions as type I, II, III and IV. Type I, II … Read moreType III (Immune Complex) Hypersensitivity- Mechanism and Examples