T.U. B.Sc. 2nd Year Microbiology (Biochem, Biotech) Syllabus

T.U. B.Sc. 2nd Year Microbiology (Biochem, Biotech) Syllabus

Description of the Course Course Title: Biochemistry and Microbial Biotechnology Full Marks: 100 Course No: MB 201 (Major) Pass Marks: 35 Nature of the Course: Theory Year: II Total Lecture Hours: 150 Course Objectives After completion of the course, the students will be able to: a) understand cell and its functions, and macromolecules of living … Read more T.U. B.Sc. 2nd Year Microbiology (Biochem, Biotech) Syllabus

Henderson Hasselbalch Equation

Henderson-Hasselbalch-Equation

Henderson Hasselbalch Equation Definition The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is the equation commonly used in chemistry and biology to determine the pH of a solution. This equation shows a relationship between the pH or pOH of the solution, the pKa or pKb, and the concentration of the chemical species involved. This equation was developed independently by the … Read more Henderson Hasselbalch Equation

Lewis Acids and Bases

Examples of Lewis acids and bases

Definition of Lewis Acids and Bases Gilbert Newton Lewis (American, 1923) put forward a broader concept of acids and bases on the basis of electron transfer. This concept is called the Lewis concept. Lewis’s concept eliminates the necessity of the presence of hydrogen in acid, and it accepts not only Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry concept but … Read more Lewis Acids and Bases

Bacterial Transformation- definition, principle, steps, examples

Bacterial Transformation

Bacterial Transformation Definition Bacterial transformation is the transfer of free DNA released from a donor bacterium into the extracellular environment that results in assimilation and usually an expression of the newly acquired trait in a recipient bacterium. This process doesn’t require a living donor cell and only requires free DNA in the environment. The recipient … Read more Bacterial Transformation- definition, principle, steps, examples

Chemical methods of sterilization- Gaseous and Liquid

Chemical methods of sterilization

What is Chemical Sterilization? Chemical Sterilization is the process of removal of microorganisms by the use of chemical bactericidal agents. Even if physical methods of sterilization are more appropriate for effective sterilization, it is not always appropriate to use for heat-sensitive materials like plastics, fiber optics, and biological specimens. Under such conditions, chemical either in … Read more Chemical methods of sterilization- Gaseous and Liquid

Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain)

Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain)

Hematoxylin and eosin staining technique functions to recognize different types of tissues and their morphological changes, especially in cancer diagnosis. Hematoxylin has a deep blue-purple color and stains nucleic acids by a complex, incompletely understood reaction. Eosin is pink and stains proteins nonspecifically. In a typical tissue, nuclei are stained blue, whereas the cytoplasm and … Read more Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain)

Brightfield Microscope (Compound Light Microscope)

Brightfield Microscope

Brightfield Microscope Definition Brightfield Microscope is also known as the Compound Light Microscope. It is an optical microscope that uses light rays to produce a dark image against a bright background. It is the standard microscope that is used in Biology, Cellular Biology, and Microbiological Laboratory studies. This microscope is used to view fixed and … Read more Brightfield Microscope (Compound Light Microscope)

Candidiasis and types of Candidiasis

Candidiasis and types of Candidiasis

Candidiasis definition Candidiasis is also known as moniliasis, is a fungal disease that is classified under opportunistic fungal infection, because of its occurrence in persons with an immune-suppressed system, especially newborns, HIV/AIDS patients, patients on antibiotic therapies, cancer therapy patients. It usually does not cause disease in healthy individuals. It is an overgrowth in the … Read more Candidiasis and types of Candidiasis

Phylum Ctenophora- characteristics, classification, examples

Phylum Ctenophora

Ctenophora Definition Ctenophores are free-swimming, transparent, jelly-like, soft-bodied, marine animals having biradial symmetry, comb-like ciliary plates for locomotion, the lasso cells but nematocytes are wanting. They are also known as sea walnuts or comb jellies. Phylum Ctenophora Characteristics They are free-swimming, marine, solitary, pelagic animals. No polymorphism and no attached stages were found. The body … Read more Phylum Ctenophora- characteristics, classification, examples

Physical methods of sterilization- Heat, Filtration, Radiation

Physical methods of sterilization- Heat, Filtration, Radiation

What is Sterilization? Sterilization is the complete removal of microorganisms from an object or surfaces. Sterilization is obtained when microorganisms are subjected to antimicrobial agents for sufficient time and at optimum conditions. Figure: Physical methods of sterilization. Image created using biorender.com Some physical methods associated with sterilization are explained below: Heat Sterilization Heat sterilization is … Read more Physical methods of sterilization- Heat, Filtration, Radiation