Sandwich (Davson–Danielli) model of cell membrane

Sandwich (Davson–Danielli) model

Sandwich (Davson–Danielli) model of cell membrane The Davson–Danielli model (or paucimolecular model) was a model of the plasma membrane of a cell, proposed in 1935 by Hugh Davson and James Danielli. The model describes a phospholipid bilayer that lies between two layers of globular proteins and it is trilaminar and lipoproteinous. It was the first model that attempted to describe the position of proteins within the … Read moreSandwich (Davson–Danielli) model of cell membrane

Enzyme Technology

Enzyme Technology

Enzyme Technology The enzyme is a substance that acts as a catalyst in living organisms, regulating the rate at which chemical reactions proceed without itself being altered in the process. Enzymes found in nature have been used since ancient times in the production of food products, such as cheese, sourdough, beer, wine and vinegar, and … Read moreEnzyme Technology

Secretory Vesicles

Secretory Vesicles

Secretory Vesicles Vesicles are small, membrane-enclosed sacs that store and transport substances to and from one cell to another and from one part of a cell to another. The small, spherical compartment of vesicles is separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer. Because vesicles are made of phospholipids, they can break off of and … Read moreSecretory Vesicles

Secondary Databases

Secondary Databases

Secondary Databases A biological database is a large, organized body of persistent data, usually associated with computerized software designed to update, query, and retrieve components of the data stored within the system. The chief objective of the development of a database is to organize data in a set of structured records to enable easy retrieval of information. … Read moreSecondary Databases

Fluid Mosaic Model

Fluid mosaic model of a cell membrane

Fluid Mosaic Model The plasma membrane, also known as the cell surface membrane or plasmalemma, defines the boundary of the cell. They are a special type of membranes which are lipid structures that separate the cell from its environment. In composition, it is a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins that enclosing every living cell. It … Read moreFluid Mosaic Model

Phosphoketolase (Heterolactic) Pathway

Phosphoketolase (Heterolactic) Pathway

Phosphoketolase (Heterolactic) Pathway The phosphoketolase pathway is distinguished by the key cleavage enzyme, phosphoketolase. Phosphoketolase in the pathway cleaves pentose phosphate into glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and acetyl phosphate which is the prime reaction of the pathway. As a fermentation pathway, it is employed mainly by the heterolactic acid bacteria which carry out heterolactic fermentation. Heterolactic fermentation is a type of lactic acid fermentation in which … Read morePhosphoketolase (Heterolactic) Pathway

Oncogenic Viruses

Oncogenic Viruses

Oncogenic Viruses Viruses are the intracellular pathogens that reproduce only in the living cell and manipulate the cellular machinery to produce more viruses. Viral replications can affect cellular genes of the host in multiple cancerous ways. An oncovirus is a virus that can cause cancer. Viruses account for about 20% of total human cancer cases. Although many viruses can cause … Read moreOncogenic Viruses

Host-Parasite Interactions

Host-Parasite Interactions

Host-Parasite Interactions Parasitism is a type of symbiotic relationship between two organisms: a parasite, usually the smaller of the two, and a host, upon which the parasite is physiologically dependent. The host in a host-parasite interaction is the animal that maintains the parasite. Types of Parasites There are two major types of parasites, endoparasites, and ectoparasites, according to location. Endoparasites … Read moreHost-Parasite Interactions

Factors affecting bacterial pathogenicity

Factors affecting bacterial pathogenicity

Factors affecting bacterial pathogenicity A microbe that is capable of causing disease is referred to as a pathogen. Pathogenicity is the ability of a microorganism to cause disease in another organism, namely the host. Pathogens vary in their ability to produce disease. The measurement of pathogenicity is called virulence, with highly virulent pathogens being more likely to cause disease … Read moreFactors affecting bacterial pathogenicity

Bioremediation

Bioremediation

Bioremediation Bioremediation refers to the use of either naturally occurring or deliberately introduced microorganisms to consume and break down environmental pollutants, in order to clean a polluted site. It is a process that uses mainly microorganisms but also plants, or microbial or plant enzymes to detoxify contaminants in the soil and other environments. The concept … Read moreBioremediation