Hand washing steps and guidelines by WHO and CDC with video

Introduction basic hygiene practices: Handwashing Basic hygiene is a mechanism of practicing and maintaining cleanliness. Poor hygienic methods have an extreme impact on causing infections ranging from skin infections to respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal infection.  Most respiratory and gastrointestinal infections have been associated more often than usual that they are transmitted through a lack … Read more Hand washing steps and guidelines by WHO and CDC with video

Light Microscope- definition, principle, types, parts, magnification

Light Microscope diagram

History of Microscopy: Overview The evolution of the Microbiology field put to perspective the need to identify, view, observe and understand microorganisms, including their structural morphologies and mechanisms. Microbiology’s scope is to study organisms and minute agents that can only be examined and observed with a microscope. Although scientifically, the first simple microscope was discovered … Read more Light Microscope- definition, principle, types, parts, magnification

Phylum Annelida- characteristics, classification, examples

Diagram of Phylum Annelida

Annelida definition Annelids are defined as triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical, metamerically segmented, a coelomate worm with a thin flexible cuticle around the body. Figure: Diagram of Phylum Annelida. Source: Wikipedia Phylum Annelida Characteristics They are mostly aquatic; marine or freshwater some terrestrial, burrowing or tubicolous, sedentary or free-living, some commensal and parasitic. The body is elongated, … Read more Phylum Annelida- characteristics, classification, examples

Parts of a microscope with functions and labeled diagram

Overview of microscope Having been constructed in the 16th Century, Microscopes have revolutionalized science with their ability to magnify small objects such as microbial cells, producing images with definitive structures that are identifiable and characterizable. So, what are microscopes? Microscopes are instruments that are used in science laboratories, to visualize very minute objects such as … Read more Parts of a microscope with functions and labeled diagram

Types of Plant Cell – Definition, Structure, Functions, Diagrams

Types of Plant Cell

Definition and overview of a plant cell Plant cells are multicellular eukaryotic cells that make up a plant (a group of eukaryotes belonging to the Plantae kingdom, with the ability to synthesis their own food using water, Sunlight and CO2). Being eukaryotic cells, they have a defined nucleus with specialized structural organelles that enable it … Read more Types of Plant Cell – Definition, Structure, Functions, Diagrams

Plant cell and animal cell differences (plant cell vs animal cell)

Plants and animals are made up of millions of cells and these cells have several similarities and differences. Considering that they are both eukaryotic cells, which means they have a true nucleus, that is enclosed and separated from other organelles by a nuclear membrane, is a crucial factor that defines their modes of multiplication. They … Read more Plant cell and animal cell differences (plant cell vs animal cell)

Plant cell- definition, labeled diagram, structure, parts, organelles

plant cell labeled diagram

Definition of plant cell Plant cells are eukaryotic cells, that are found in green plants, photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae which means they have a membrane-bound nucleus. They have a variety of membrane-bound cell organelles that perform various specific functions to maintain the normal functioning of the plant cell. Structure of Plant cell Generally, … Read more Plant cell- definition, labeled diagram, structure, parts, organelles

Animal Cell – Definition, Structure, Parts, Functions and Diagram

Definition of animal cell Animals are a large group of diverse living organisms that make up to three-quarters of all species on earth. With their ability to move, to respond to stimuli, respond to environmental changes and adapt to different modes of feeding defense mechanisms and reproduction, all these mechanisms are enhanced by their constituent … Read more Animal Cell – Definition, Structure, Parts, Functions and Diagram

Top 10 Microbiology Journals with Impact Factor (updated 2020)

Top 10 Microbiology Journals with Impact Factor (Updated 2020)

Top 10 Microbiology Journals with Impact Factor (updated 2020) Source of Ranking: Journal Citation Reports (Clarivate Analytics) Journal Logo Source: Respective Journals Website. Disclaimer: Logos and informations are only used for educational purposes. If there are any copyright issues regarding the logo and information of the journal, please email us at microbenotes@gmail.com. 1. Nature Reviews … Read more Top 10 Microbiology Journals with Impact Factor (updated 2020)

Calcofluor White Staining

Calcofluor White Staining

Calcofluor White Staining Calcofluor white is a chemifluorescent blue dye that is nonspecifically used to bind to the beta linked-polysaccharide polymers of amoebic cysts. It functions by being able to bind to 1-3 beta and 1-4 beta polysaccharides on chitin and cellulose that is present in cell walls on fungi, plants, and algae. Due to … Read more Calcofluor White Staining

Grocott-Gomori’s Methenamine Silver Staining

Grocott-Gomori's Methenamine Silver Staining

Grocott-Gomori’s Methenamine Silver (GMS) stain is a histological stain that is used majorly for the identification of carbohydrates in fungal microorganisms. This staining method was named after György Gömöri, a physician from Hungary, who developed the staining methodology. Its initial application to assess missing tissues and diseases in the liver and the rectum (Nadworny, Wang, … Read more Grocott-Gomori’s Methenamine Silver Staining

Epsilometer test (E test)

Epsilometer test (E test)

Introduction Epsilometer test (E- test) is defined as the “exponential gradient” method that determines the antimicrobial resistance of the microorganism. It is a cost-effective tool that has been developed to provide a direct quantification of antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganisms. It is a quantitative method that applies both the dilution of antibiotics and the diffusion of … Read more Epsilometer test (E test)

Differences between DNA and RNA (DNA vs RNA)

Differences between DNA and RNA

Differences between DNA and RNA (DNA vs RNA) Some of the differences are: S.N. Character DNA RNA 1.       Full form Deoxyribonucleic Acid  Ribonucleic Acid 2.       Location DNA is found in the nucleus, with a small amount of DNA also present in mitochondria. RNA forms in the nucleolus, and then moves to specialized regions … Read more Differences between DNA and RNA (DNA vs RNA)