Neisseria gonorrhoeae- Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Neisseria gonorrhoeae- Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen and is the etiological agent of gonorrhea. In the United States, it is the second most commonly reported communicable disease, with more than 350,000 cases reported annually. Syndromes include cervicitis in women and urethritis, pharyngitis and proctitis in both sexes. If untreated, women may experience severe sequelae of … Read moreNeisseria gonorrhoeae- Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Epidemic- Causes, Types, and Response

Epidemic- Causes, Types, and Response

Epidemic- Causes, Types, and Response An epidemic is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. According to modern concepts, an epidemic is defined as the occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness or other health-related events … Read moreEpidemic- Causes, Types, and Response

Klebsiella pneumoniae- Pathogenicity and Clinical Manifestations

Klebsiella pneumoniae- Pathogenicity and Clinical Manifestations

Klebsiella pneumoniae- Pathogenicity and Clinical Manifestations Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative, encapsulated, non-motile bacterium that is found in the environment and has been associated with pneumonia in the alcoholic and diabetic patient population. K. pneumoniae is also a well-known cause of community-acquired pneumonia. The bacterium typically colonizes human mucosal surfaces of the oropharynx and gastrointestinal … Read moreKlebsiella pneumoniae- Pathogenicity and Clinical Manifestations

Modified Thayer Martin Agar

Modified Thayer Martin Agar

Modified Thayer Martin Agar Thayer and Martin reported an improvement of the Chocolate Agar formulation that contained antimicrobics vancomycin, colistin and nystatin have been added to minimize overgrowth by contaminants, suppress the growth of saprophytic Neisseria sp., and enhance the growth of pathogenic Neisseria. Martin and Lester later added antibiotic trimethoprim to make the medium … Read moreModified Thayer Martin Agar

Biochemical Test of Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis

Biochemical Test of Francisella tularensis

Biochemical Test of Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Image Source: New York State Health Department Some of the characteristics are as follows: Basic Characteristics Properties (Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis) Capsule Positive (+ve) Catalase Positive (+ve) Flagella Negative (-ve) Gas Negative (-ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Faintly stained Gram-negative H2S (in cysteine-supplemented medium) Positive (+ve) … Read moreBiochemical Test of Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis

E. coli- Pathogenicity and Clinical Manifestations

E. coli- Pathogenicity and Clinical Manifestations

E. coli is the most common and important member of the genus Escherichia. It is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Human Escherichia coli strains are classified as commensal microbiota E. coli, enterovirulent E. coli, and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli on the basis of their genetic features … Read moreE. coli- Pathogenicity and Clinical Manifestations

Peptone Water

Peptone Water

Peptone Water Peptone water is formulated as per Shread, Donovan, and Lee. It is a broth medium used for the growth of the organism and a base for determining carbohydrate fermentation patterns of non-fastidious organisms. In addition, it is also used for the detection of indole production by the organism. Composition Ingredients Gms / L … Read morePeptone Water

Endemic Diseases

Endemic Diseases

Endemic Diseases Communicable diseases are termed endemic when they have a relatively stable pattern of occurrence in a given geographical area or population group at the relatively high prevalence and incidence. It refers to the constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a given geographic area or population group, without importation from outside. … Read moreEndemic Diseases

Clostridium perfringens- Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Clostridium perfringens- Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Laboratory Diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens For Diarrheal Disease Laboratories diagnose C. perfringens food poisoning by detecting a type of bacterial toxin in feces or by tests to determine the number of bacteria in the feces. A count of at least 106 C. perfringens spores per gram of stool within 48 hours of when the illness … Read moreClostridium perfringens- Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Acinetobacter baumannii- Pathogenicity and Clinical Features

Acinetobacter baumannii- Pathogenicity and Clinical Features

Acinetobacter baumannii- Pathogenicity and Clinical Features Acinetobacters are strictly aerobic, oxidase-negative, plump gram-negative coccobacilli which are ubiquitous saprophytes, recovered in nature and in the hospitals. They are opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and wounds; they also cause septicemia. Acinetobacter is subdivided into two groups: glucose oxidizing species ( A. … Read moreAcinetobacter baumannii- Pathogenicity and Clinical Features