Streptococcus anginosus- An Overview

Streptococcus anginosus

What is Streptococcus anginosus? Streptococcus anginosus is a Gram-positive bacterium that is present in the mouth, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina as a normal inhabitant. S. anginosus belongs to the anginosus subgroup of viridans streptococci which was traditionally called the ‘milleri group’. However, the name is now pseudotaxonomic as the idea that all the members in the group …

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Bacteriophage- Definition, Structure, Life Cycles, Applications, Phage Therapy


Bacteriophage Definition Bacteriophage or Phage is a virus that infects and replicates only within the body of bacteria. Bacteriophages were discovered independently by Frederick W. Twort in the U.K and Félix d’Hérelle in France. The term ‘bacteriophage’ has been derived from two words; ‘bacteria’ and ‘phagein’, meaning devour. The term was coined by Félix d’Hérelle. These are found throughout the …

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Staphylococcus aureus- An Overview

Staphylococcus aureus

Image Source: ASM and Bacteria in Photos. Habitat of Staphylococcus aureus The natural habitat is mammalian body surfaces. They are normal flora of the skin and mucous membrane. Also present in the nose / the anterior nares. They can also be found in Pharynx. Found in stratified epithelial cells or mucous or serum constituents associated with these cells. Found in skin/nasal …

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis- An Overview

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Habitat of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Human is only a known reservoir. Usually found in the lungs but can also live in any part of the body. They may be obligate pathogen, facultative or opportunistic pathogens, or free living. Usually infect the mono-nuclear phagocytes. Can also be infected by the consumption of unpasteurized milk. Can survive for weeks in the dust, on …

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Clostridium perfringens- An Overview

Clostridium perfringens

Image Source: Nanobugs. Habitat of Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens are isolated from fecal specimens from humans and animals. They are an inhabitant of human normal intestinal flora. They are present in nature and can be found as a normal component of decaying vegetation, marine sediments, and soil. Beef, poultry, gravies and dried or pre-cooked foods are common sources of Clostridium …

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Bacillus cereus- An Overview

Bacillus cereus

Habitat of Bacillus cereus Bacillus cereus is isolated from soil, vegetables, milk, cereals, spices, fried rice, cooked poultry and meats, soups, and desserts. It is also found in mashed potatoes, beef stew, apples, hot chocolates sold in vending machines, and other improper food handling areas. In 1887, B. cereus was isolated from air in a cowshed by Frankland and Frankland. It …

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Staphylococcus lugdunensis- An Overview

Staphylococcus lugdunensis

What is Staphylococcus lugdunensis? Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a Gram-positive, coagulase-negative coccus that is a part of human normal flora but recently has been associated with various skin and soft tissue infections. S. lugdunensis has a significant pathogenic potential compared with other coagulase-negative staphylococci owing to its various virulence factors. Like all Staphylococci, S. lugdunensis is also clustering Gram-positive cocci, non-motile, …

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Cellular Respiration- Definition, Equations, Types, Steps, Products

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration Definition Cellular respiration is a metabolic process consisting of a series of steps to convert chemical energy (sugar) into a usable form of energy (ATP) in the cell. The reactions involved in cellular respiration are catabolic reactions that involve the breakdown of larger organic molecules into smaller forms. The overall process of cellular respiration takes place in a …

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3D Bioprinting- Definition, Principle, Process, Types, Applications

3D Bioprinting- Definition, Principle, Process, Types, Applications

What is 3D Bioprinting? 3D Bioprinting is the method of printing biomedical structures with the use of viable cells, biological molecules, and biomaterials. In simple words, 3D bioprinting is the deposition of biological material in a layer-by-layer fashion to create 3D structures like tissues and organs. Bioprinting is considered a part of additive manufacturing that involves the formation of materials …

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