What is Immunology?

Immunology

What is Immunology? Immunology is the study of how the body responds to foreign substances and fights off infection and other disease. Immunologists study the molecules, cells, and organs of the human body that participate in this response. Immunity Immunity is a condition of being able to resist a particular disease especially through preventing the development of pathogenic microorganism or by counteracting the effects of its products. Innate immunity is something already present in the body and non-specific. Innate immunity is … Read more

Biochemical Test of Streptococcus canis

Biochemical Test of Streptococcus canis Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus canis) CAMP Negative (-ve) Catalase Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative anaerobes Shape Cocci Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Negative (-ve) Fermentation of Adonitol Negative (-ve) Arabinose Negative (-ve) Arabitol Negative (-ve) Arbutin Positive (+ve) Dulcitol Negative (-ve) Erythritol Negative (-ve) Fructose Positive (+ve) Galactose Positive (+ve) Glucose Positive (+ve) Glycogen Negative (-ve) Hippurate Negative (-ve) Inositol Negative (-ve) Inulin Negative (-ve) Lactose Positive (+ve) Maltose Positive … Read more

Characteristics of Fungi

Characteristics of Fungi

Characteristics of Fungi Fungi are eukaryotic organisms means they have true nucleus which are enclosed in membranes. They are non-vascular organisms. They do not have vascular system. Xylem and Phloem are absent. Fungi have cell walls (plants also have cell walls, but animals have no cell walls). There is no embryonic stage for fungi. They reproduce by means of spores. There are sexual and asexual spores. Sexual spores are Oospores, Zygospores, Ascospores, Basidiospores, etc. and Asexual spores are Sporangiospores, Aplanospores, … Read more

Biochemical Test of Providencia stuartii

Biochemical Test of Providencia stuartii

Biochemical Test of Providencia stuartii Basic Characteristics Properties (Providencia stuartii) Capsule Non-Capsulated Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Flagella Flagellated Gas from glucose Negative (-ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Positive (+ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Indole Positive (+ve) Motility Positive (+ve) MR (Methyl Red) Positive (+ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Fermentative Oxidase Negative (-ve) Pigment Negative (-ve) Shape Rods Spore Non-Sporing Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Negative (-ve) Fermentation of Adonitol … Read more

Aerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci

Aerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci

Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Clinical Features Urinary tract infections, peritonitis, bacteremia, endocarditis Virulence Factors Relatively avirulent Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Features Suppurative infections: impetigo, folliculitis, furuncles, carbuncles, wounds Disseminated infections: bacteremia, endocarditis, pneumonia, empyema, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis Toxin-mediated infections: toxic shock syndrome, scalded skin syndrome, food poisoning Virulence Factors Possess thick peptidoglycan layer, capsule, protein A, various toxins (cytotoxins, exfoliative toxins, enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin, Panton- Valentine leukocidin) and hydrolytic enzymes Staphylococcus, coagulase-negative Clinical Features Wound infections, urinary tract … Read more

Biochemical Test of Hafnia alvei

Biochemical Test of Hafnia alvei Basic Characteristics Properties (Hafnia alvei) Capsule Non-Capsulated Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Flagella Flagellated Gas from Glucose Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Positive (+ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Motile MR (Methyl Red) Variable Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Fermentative Oxidase Negative (-ve) Pigment Negative (-ve) Shape Rod Spore Non-Sporing Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Positive (+ve) Fermentation of Adonitol Negative (-ve) … Read more