NEB Class 11 Biology (Botany + Zoology) Syllabus

NEB Class 11 Biology (Botany + Zoology) Syllabus

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I. Introduction

Biology, being the science of nature, deals the fascinating changes, which continuously takes place in the living world. Every person is expected to understand the nature of which is a part. One needs to be familiar with the changes taking place in nature. The study of biology equips an indvidual, to understand the living world in the light of new researches. Besides realizing the general objectives of any discipline of science like development of scientific temper and anlytical skill, the curriculum in biology has also to be geared to meet the requirement of careers in the field of medicine and related disciplines (wildlife, forestry, agriculture, natural resources, environment, etc). This course is designed for general science (Biological and physical) students of Grade XI.

NEB Class 11 Biology (Botany + Zoology) Syllabus

II. General Objectives

The general objectives of this course are:

  • to provide the concept of biology and encourage the learners to use the acquired knowledge in day to day life,
  • to make the learners aware of the present development in the biological science as well as
  • to develop the knowledge and skill in the wise use of the available natural resources and sustaining them; and
  • to prepare the students to take up advance studies in biology at university level.

III. Specific Objectives

On completion of the course the students will be able to:

  • describe the life components, origin of life and its evolution up to present day;
  • explain the cell components, their types and cell division
  • explain diversity of plant and animal
  • discuss functional processes of the typical animal types
  • describe the environmental concept, ecological imbalances and their consequences; and
  • explain importance of natural resources, their conservation and management with reference to national context.


Total Teaching Hours: 75 Hours, Total Marks: 37.5

Unit 1 : Introduction to Biology- 5 teaching hour (3 Marks)

  • Biochemically important organic and inorganic molecules (general concepts): Carbohydrate, protein, lipid, nucleic acid, minerals and water.

Unit 2 : Cell Biology- 15 teaching hour (8 Marks)

  • The cell: The cell as a unit of life, structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, Structure and functions of cell organelles and inclusions.
  • Cell division: Amitosis, mitosis, meiosis

Unit 3. Biodiversity- 40 teaching hour (18.5 Marks)

Definition and scope of biodiversity, flora diversity of Nepal, concept of taxonomy: classification, binomial nomenclature, shortcoming of two kingdom classification, hierarchic system in classification, phylogeny. Five kingdom classification: Monera, protista, Mycota, Plantae and Animalia.

  • Monera: General account, structure and function of bacterial cells, concept of autotrophic and heterotrophic life styles, economic importance of bacteria.
  • Cyanobacteria: Nostoc- Structure, reproduction and economic importance.
  • Mycota: Concept of Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes. Structure and reproduction of Zygomycetes (Mucor), Ascomycetes (Yeast). Economic importance of fungi.
  • Plantae:
    • Algae: Introduction to green, red and brown algae, structure and reproduction of Spirogyra.
    • Bryophyta: Marchantia and Funaria (morphology and life cycle).
    • Pteridophyta: Dryopteris (morphology and life cycle)
    • Gymnosperm: Brief morphological structure of Cycas and pinus structure and it’s distribution.
    • Angiosperm: Morphology: root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit and seed relevant to the following families. Taxonomy and economic importance of the following families; Cruciferae (Brassicaceae), Solanaceae,
    • Leguminosae- Papilionoidae only, Compositae (Asteraceae) and Gramineae (Poaceae)
    • Lichen: Introduction and economic importance.
    • Virus: Structure and economic importance.

Unit 4: Biota and their Environment- 15 teaching hour (8 Marks)

  • Ecology: Definition, abiotic, biotic factors and their interactions
  • Concept of ecosystem, Pond and grassland ecosystems: structural and functional aspects; food chain, trophic level, ecological pyramids, productivity, concept of community and succession.
  • Bio-geochemical cycle: carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle.
  • Ecological imbalance and its consequences: Green house effects, depletion of ozone layer and acid rain
  • Concept of mountain ecosystem (altitudinal and climatic changes)
  • Conservation:
    • Forest conservation: Brief introduction of forests of Nepal, importance of afforestation and hazards of defrorestation
    • Management of land and water


Total Marks: 12.5 Marks

  1. Use and maintenance of compound microscope.
  2. Study of museum specimen and slides.
    • Types of bacterical cells;
    • Spirogyra filaments;
    • Mucor: Culture to demonstrate mycelium and sporangium; culture of yeast cells;
    • Study of vegetative and reproductive structure of Marchantia, Funaria, Dryopteris, Pinus.
  3. Study of different stages of mitotic and meiotic cell division through permanent slides and chart.
  4. Preparation of temporary slide to study cell structure: Onion scale leaf, leaf of Geranium or Zebrina or Tradescantia or any other locally available leaf.
  5. Description of following plants in semi-technical terms with their floral diagrams and formulae and identification and economic importance of at least one plant from each of the following families:
    • Cruciferae (Brassicaceae)
    • Solanaceae
    • Leguminosae- Papilionoidae only
    • Compositae (Asteraceae)
    • Gramineae (Poaceae)
  6. Study of fresh water ecosystem using an aquarium or pond showing food chain.
  7. Study of morphological adaptations of the hydrophytes, mesophytes and Xerophytes.
  8. Field study: Collection identification of plants and animals from local area; preservation of collected organisms in suitable preservatives and maintain a record. The students are also advised to observe different types of environmental pollution during their field study (Jointly with zoology Dept).


Total Teaching Hours: 75 Hours, Total Marks: 37.5

Unit 1: Introduction to Biology- 5 teaching hour (2 Marks)

  • Nature and scope of Biology
  • Branch and relation with other sciences
  • General approach to understand life processes.

Unit 2 : Origin and evolution of life- 20 Teaching hour (10 Marks)

  • Life and its origin
  • Theories of origin of life
  • Oparin and Haldane’s Theory
  • Miller and Urey’s experiment
  • Meaning of evolution, organic evolution
  • Evidences of evolution, structural, anatomical, paleontological, Embyrological & Biochemical
  • Lamarckism, Darwinism & concept of Neo Darwinism
  • Human evolution

Unit 3: Biodiversity- 35 teaching hour (17.5 Marks)

Meaning of biodiversity, faunal diversity of Nepal.

  • Protista: Characteristics and classification of phylum protozoa upto class with examples; Habit and habitat, structure, reproduction and lifecycle of Paramecium and Plasmodium vivax (a concept of P. falciparum)
  • Animalia: General characters and classification of the following phyla (upto class) with examples- Porifera, coelenterata (Cnidaria), Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes (Nemathelminthes), Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Chordata.
  • Earthworm (Pheretima posthuma): Habit and habitat, structure; digestive, excertory, reproductive and nervous systems. Economic importance.
  • Frog (Rana tigrina): Habit and habitat, structure; digestive, circulatory, respiratory, Reproductive anf nervous system.Economic importance.

Unit 4: Biota and their Environment- 15 teaching hour (8 Marks)

  • Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil. Sources of pollution, their effects and control measures. Hazards of pesticides.
  • Animal behaviour: Taxes, reflexes and reflex action, dominance and leadership migratory behaviour of fish and bird.
  • Adaption: Animal: Aquatic, amphibious and terrestrial (arboreal and volan)
  • Conservation:
    • Wildlife conservation: Meaning of wildlife, importance of wildlife, meaning of rare, threatened, vulnerable and endangered species, few endangered species in Nepal.
    • Conservation practices (National parks, wildlife reserves and hunting reserves) ways of conservation and causes of extinction.
    • Human responsibility for the protection of earth.


Total Marks: 12.5 Marks

  1. Study of permanent slide and museum specimen: Paramecium, Plasmodium, Sycon, Hydra, Fasciola(liver fluke), Taenia (Tape worm), Ascaris(Round worm), Pheretima(Earthworm), Hirudinaria(leech), Palaemon(Prawn), Cancer(Crab), Periplaneta (Cockroach), Pieris(Butterfly), Bombyx(Moth), Aranea (Spider), Palamnaeus (Scopion), Scolopendra (Centipede), Julus (Millipede), Helix (Garden Snail), Astereas (Starfish), Labeo (Rohu fish), Rana (Frog), Bufo (Toad), Hemidactylus (walllizard), Chelone (turtle), Columba (pigeon), Rhinolophus (Bat) and Funambulus (Squirrel)
  2. Preparation of temporary slide and their study:
    • Striated muscle fibre(thigh) of frog.
    • Setae and ovary of earthworm
    • Squamous epithelial cell of human cheek.
  3. Study of histological structure through permanent slides of skin, oesophagus, stomach, intestine, rectum, liver, pancreas, lung, kidney, testis and ovary of frog.
  4. Study of adaptational features of a primary aquatic animal (Labeo), Secondary aquatic animal (Turtle), arboreal (Calotes, Tree frog), primary volant (pigeon or other birds) and secondary volant (Flying fish, Bat)
  5. Dissection of animal provided so as to expose their
    • Earthworm: General anatomy, alimentary canal, nervous system and reproductive organs.
    • Frog: General anatomy, alimentary canal, arterial and venous systems, reproductive
      organs and brain.


  1. Government of Nepal, Ministry of Education, Curriculum Development Centre, Sanothimi, Bhaktapur, Nepal

NEB Class 11 Biology (Botany + Zoology) Syllabus

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