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Unitwise Marking Scheme of CBSE Class 12 Biology
|VII||Genetics and Evolution||18|
|VIII||Biology and Human Welfare||14|
|IX||Biotechnology and its Applications||12|
|X||Ecology and Environment||12|
Chapter-1: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.
Chapter-2: Human Reproduction
Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis – spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).
Chapter-3: Reproductive Health
Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).
Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution
Chapter-4: Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in human being, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans -thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
Chapter-5: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation – lac operon; Genome, Human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.
Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare
Chapter-6: Human Health and Diseases
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.
Chapter-7: Microbes in Human Welfare
Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.
Unit-IX Biotechnology and its Applications
Chapter-8: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes
Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).
Chapter-9: Biotechnology and its Application
Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.
Unit-X Ecology and Environment
Chapter-10: Organisms and Populations
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Chapter-11: Biodiversity and its Conservation
Biodiversity – Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
CBSE Class 12 Biology Practicals Evaluation Scheme
|One Major Experiment (5, 6)||5|
|One Minor Experiment (2, 3)||4|
|Slide Preparation (1, 4)||5|
|Practical Record + Viva Voce||Credit to the students’ work over the academic session may be given||4|
|Investigatory Project and its
Project and its Record + Viva Voce
A. List of Experiments
1. Prepare a temporary mount to observe pollen germination.
2. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
3. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organism.
4. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
5. Study the effect of different temperatures or three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch.
6. Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc.
B. Study/observation of the following (Spotting)
1. Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds).
2. Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper/mice).
3. Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.
4. T.S. of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian).
5. Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow’s peak and colour blindness.
6. Common disease causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, any fungus causing ringworm through permanent slides, models or virtual images. Comment on
symptoms of diseases that they cause.
7. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in xeric conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
8. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.