Anisocytosis- Definition, Types, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments


Anisocytosis Definition Anisocytosis is a medical condition where the sizes of different erythrocytes/red blood cells are unequal. “Aniso” refers to unequal, and “cytosis” refers to the movement or number of cells. Anisocytosis refers to excessive red blood cell size variation which can be quantitatively determined by interpreting peripheral blood films and automated assessment of red blood cell size distribution. The red cell distribution width (RDW) represents a quantitative measure of anisocytosis. RDW is a measure of the variability of erythrocyte … Read more

Ketones in urine (ketonuria) and Ketones in urine test

Ketones in urine (ketonuria) and Ketones in urine test

What are ketones? Chemically, ketones are the organic compounds containing carbon, oxygen various carbon-containing substituents. Ketones consist of a carbonyl (C=O) functional group. In our body, ketones are the metabolic end products of fatty acid metabolism. What are ketone bodies? Ketone bodies are the water-soluble particles formed in the liver when the acetyl-CoA formed in the liver during the oxidation of fatty acids undergoes ketogenesis instead of entering the citric acid cycle when carbohydrate is not available or poorly utilized. Ketone … Read more

Sample collection and Diagnosis of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2)

Sample collection and Diagnosis of COVID-19

Medical Disclaimer: The information presented on the website is only for academic and study purposes and must not be used for the purpose of diagnosis. If you are not feeling well, please consult with your physician or doctor. Specimen Collection Since COVID-19 is an infectious respiratory tract infection, respiratory material should be collected, at a minimum: upper respiratory specimens: nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs or wash in patients still capable of movement. lower respiratory specimens: sputum (if produced) or endotracheal aspirate … Read more

MCH Blood Test- Definition, Calculation, Results, High and Low MCH value

MCH Blood Test

What is MCH Blood Test? MCH (Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin) test is a test performed to calculate the average amount of hemoglobin present in the red blood cells of a blood sample. Hemoglobin is an essential protein found in the blood as it is responsible for the transport of gases and nutrients throughout the body. MCH is different from MCHC even though they seem like the same thing. MCH is the average amount of hemoglobin in individual red blood cells, whereas … Read more

MPV Blood Test- Definition, Calculation, Results, High and Low MPV value

MPV Blood Test

What is MPV Blood Test? MPV (Mean Platelet Volume) test is a test performed to determine the average size of platelets present in a blood sample. Platelets are important blood cells that are responsible for blood clotting, a process that controls blood loss after an injury. The mean platelet volume (MPV) is the measurement of the dimension of platelets, calculated by hematological analyzers depending on the volume distribution during routine blood morphology test. MPV blood test is performed as a … Read more

Types of Crystals in Urine

Types of Crystals in Urine

Urine contains a large number of different chemicals. Under some circumstances, these chemicals may solidify into salt crystals. This is called crystalluria. Crystals have a characteristic refractile appearance. Testing for crystals in urine test is often part of a urinalysis, a test that measures different substances in the urine.  Normal urine contains many chemicals from which crystals can form, and therefore the finding of most crystals has little importance. This is to say that, crystals can be seen in the urine … Read more

Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test

Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test

Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) like the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test is a screening test for syphilis which is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum. It is a rapid non-treponemal test that looks for non-specific antibodies in the blood of the patient that may indicate a syphilis infection. The test does not look for antibodies against the causative bacterium itself but rather for antibodies IgM and IgG against lipoprotein-like material released from damaged host cells caused by T. pallidum and possibly … Read more

Coomb’s Test- Direct and Indirect Coomb’s Test

Result Interpretation of Coomb's Test

Coomb’s test is a direct agglutination reaction, more commonly known as antiglobulin test. It was discovered by Coombs, Mourant and Race in 1945 originally for the detection of incomplete anti-Rh antibodies. In the test, incomplete antibodies do not agglutinate erythrocytes. Incomplete antibody antiglobulin coats the surface of erythrocytes but does not cause any agglutination. When such erythrocytes are treated with antiglobulin or Coombs’ serum then the cells are agglutinated. Coombs’ Serum or Coomb’s reagent is a special serum from a … Read more

Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) Test

Result Interpretation of VDRL Test

The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL) is a screening test for sexually transmitted infection – syphilis caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum.  It is a non-treponemal test, which detects antibodies IgM and IgG antibodies to lipoidal material released from damaged host cells as well as to lipoprotein-like material, and possibly cardiolipin released from the treponemes. These antibodies are traditionally referred to as ‘reagins’. The VDRL test is thus slide micro flocculation test used to screen for syphilis in addition to more specific tests used to … Read more