Hand washing steps and guidelines by WHO and CDC with video

Introduction basic hygiene practices: Handwashing Basic hygiene is a mechanism of practicing and maintaining cleanliness. Poor hygienic methods have an extreme impact on causing infections ranging from skin infections to respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal infection.  Most respiratory and gastrointestinal … Read more

Mode of Transmission of Diseases

Mode of Transmission of Diseases

The traditional epidemiologic triad model holds that infectious diseases result from the interaction of agent, host, and environment. More specifically, transmission occurs when the agent leaves its reservoir or host through a portal of exit, is conveyed by some mode of transmission, and enters … Read more

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

The Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), is also alternatively referred to as verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC), and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). All members of this group are defined by the presence of Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) or 2 (Stx2). Some … Read more

Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)

Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)

Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) is defined as containing the E. coli strains that elaborate at least one member of two defined groups of enterotoxins: heat-stable toxin (ST) and heat-stable toxin (LT). Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, or ETEC, is thus the name given to a group … Read more

Source and Reservoir of Infection

Source and Reservoir of Infection

The starting point for the occurrence of a communicable disease is the existence of a reservoir or source of infection. The source of infection is defined as “the person, animal, object or substance from which an infectious agent passes or … Read more

Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC)

Stages of pathogenesis of EAEC

Enteroaggregative E.  coli (EAEC) are a heterogeneous collection of strains characterized by their autoagglutination in a “stacked-brick” arrangement over the epithelium of the small intestine and, in some cases, the colon. EAEC strains are currently defined as  E. coli strains that do … Read more

E. coli Pathotypes- ETEC, EPEC, EHEC, EAEC, EIEC, DAEC

E. coli Pathotypes

Escherichia coli (commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Human Escherichia coli strains are classified as commensal microbiota E. coli, enterovirulent E. coli, and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) on … Read more

Types of Crystals in Urine

Types of Crystals in Urine

Urine contains a large number of different chemicals. Under some circumstances, these chemicals may solidify into salt crystals. This is called crystalluria. Crystals have a characteristic refractile appearance. Testing for crystals in urine test is often part of a urinalysis, a … Read more

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Urinary Tract Infection

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. The urinary system is made up of the kidneys, ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra. Most UTIs are restricted to infection of the bladder (cystitis), though infection may occur … Read more