Nutrient Agar- Principle, Composition, Preparation and Uses

Nutrient Agar- Principle, Composition, Preparation and Uses

Nutrient Agar is a general-purpose medium for the cultivation of a wide variety of bacterial organisms. This medium is best prepared from ready to use dehydrated powder, available from most suppliers of culture media. Principle of Nutrient Agar Nutrient Agar consists of peptone, beef extract and agar. This relatively simple formulation provides the nutrients necessary for … Read moreNutrient Agar- Principle, Composition, Preparation and Uses

Protein Structure- Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary

Protein Structure- Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary

Four levels of hierarchy in protein conformation can be described. A. PRIMARY STRUCTURE PRIMARY STRUCTURE refers to the order of the amino acids in the peptide chain. 1. The free α-amino group, written to the left, is called the amino-terminal or N-terminal end. 2. The free α-carboxyl group, written to the right, is called the … Read moreProtein Structure- Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary

Hippurate Hydrolysis Test- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Result Interpretation of Hippurate Hydrolysis Test

Hippurate Hydrolysis Test- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation Objective of Hippurate Hydrolysis Test Production of the enzyme hippuricase is used for the presumptive identification of a variety of microorganisms. The hippurate test is used in the identification of Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Gardnerella vaginalis and Streptococcus agalactiae by detecting the ability of the organism to hydrolyze sodium hippurate … Read moreHippurate Hydrolysis Test- Principle, Procedure and Result Interpretation

What is Immunology?

Immunology

What is Immunology? Immunology is the study of how the body responds to foreign substances and fights off infection and other disease. Immunologists study the molecules, cells, and organs of the human body that participate in this response. Immunity Immunity is a condition of being able to resist a particular disease especially through preventing the … Read moreWhat is Immunology?

Measles Virus- Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control

Measles Virus- Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control

Laboratory diagnosis of Measles Virus Demonstration of clinical form i.e koplik’s spots. Microscopy – demonstration of multinucleated giant cells measuring 100n min diameter obtained from nasopharyngeal secretion and stained with Giemsa stain. Virus isolation Measles virus can be isolated from a variety of sources, e.g. throat or conjunctival washings, sputum, urinary sediment cells and lymphocytes. Primary … Read moreMeasles Virus- Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control

Biochemical Test of Streptococcus canis

Biochemical Test of Streptococcus canis Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus canis) CAMP Negative (-ve) Catalase Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative anaerobes Shape Cocci Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Negative (-ve) Fermentation of Adonitol Negative (-ve) Arabinose Negative (-ve) Arabitol Negative (-ve) Arbutin Positive (+ve) Dulcitol Negative (-ve) Erythritol Negative (-ve) Fructose … Read moreBiochemical Test of Streptococcus canis

Characteristics of Fungi

Characteristics of Fungi

Characteristics of Fungi Fungi are eukaryotic organisms means they have true nucleus which are enclosed in membranes. They are non-vascular organisms. They do not have vascular system. Xylem and Phloem are absent. Fungi have cell walls (plants also have cell walls, but animals have no cell walls). There is no embryonic stage for fungi. They … Read moreCharacteristics of Fungi

Biochemical Test of Providencia stuartii

Biochemical Test of Providencia stuartii

Biochemical Test of Providencia stuartii Basic Characteristics Properties (Providencia stuartii) Capsule Non-Capsulated Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Flagella Flagellated Gas from glucose Negative (-ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Positive (+ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Indole Positive (+ve) Motility Positive (+ve) MR (Methyl Red) Positive (+ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive … Read moreBiochemical Test of Providencia stuartii

Aerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci

Aerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci

Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Clinical Features Urinary tract infections, peritonitis, bacteremia, endocarditis Virulence Factors Relatively avirulent Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Features Suppurative infections: impetigo, folliculitis, furuncles, carbuncles, wounds Disseminated infections: bacteremia, endocarditis, pneumonia, empyema, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis Toxin-mediated infections: toxic shock syndrome, scalded skin syndrome, food poisoning Virulence Factors Possess thick peptidoglycan layer, capsule, protein … Read moreAerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci

Biochemical Test of Hafnia alvei

Biochemical Test of Hafnia alvei Basic Characteristics Properties (Hafnia alvei) Capsule Non-Capsulated Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Flagella Flagellated Gas from Glucose Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Positive (+ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Motile MR (Methyl Red) Variable Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) OF … Read moreBiochemical Test of Hafnia alvei