Aerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci

Aerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci

Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Clinical Features Urinary tract infections, peritonitis, bacteremia, endocarditis Virulence Factors Relatively avirulent Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Features Suppurative infections: impetigo, folliculitis, furuncles, carbuncles, wounds Disseminated infections: bacteremia, endocarditis, pneumonia, empyema, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis Toxin-mediated infections: toxic shock syndrome, scalded skin syndrome, food poisoning Virulence Factors Possess thick peptidoglycan layer, capsule, protein … Read moreAerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci

Biochemical Test of Hafnia alvei

Biochemical Test of Hafnia alvei Basic Characteristics Properties (Hafnia alvei) Capsule Non-Capsulated Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Positive (+ve) Flagella Flagellated Gas from Glucose Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Positive (+ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Indole Negative (-ve) Motility Motile MR (Methyl Red) Variable Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) OF … Read moreBiochemical Test of Hafnia alvei

Phagocytosis- Introduction, Mechanism, Steps and Example

Phagocytosis- Introduction, Mechanism, Steps and Example

Introduction of Phagocytosis Phagocytosis is a process by which cells ingest large particles (> 0.5 micrometers) into membrane-bound vesicles called phagosomes, which are then targeted to the lysosomes for enzymatic degradation.  Phagocytosis is greatly enhanced by opsonization of the bacteria. Attachment of a specific IgG or complement fragment, C3, can greatly enhance the efficiency of phagocytosis, … Read morePhagocytosis- Introduction, Mechanism, Steps and Example

Biochemical Test of Streptococcus mutans

Biochemical Test of Streptococcus mutans

Biochemical Test of Streptococcus mutans Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus mutans) Capsule Capsulated Catalase Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Alfa Hemolysis Motility Non-motile OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative anaerobes Oxidase Negative (-ve) Shape Cocci Spore Non-sporing Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Positive (+ve) Fermentation of Adonitol Negative (-ve) Arabinose Negative (-ve) Arbutin Positive (+ve) Cellobiose … Read moreBiochemical Test of Streptococcus mutans

Differences between Primary and Secondary Immune Response

Differences between Primary and Secondary Immune Response

In a primary immune response, naive B cells are stimulated by antigen, become activated, and differentiate into antibody-secreting cells that produce antibodies specific for the eliciting antigen. A secondary immune response is elicited when the same antigen stimulates memory B cells, leading to production of greater quantities of specific antibody than are produced in the … Read moreDifferences between Primary and Secondary Immune Response

Structure and Genome of Human Cytomegalo Virus

Structure and Genome of Human Cytomegalo Virus

Structure of Human Cytomegalo Virus Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a member of the herpes virus family which fall under the beta herpes subfamily. CMV is spherical in shape with icosahedral symmetry. Figure: Structure of Human Cytomegalo Virus, Source: Dr. Marko Reschke, Marburg, Germany The icosahedral protein capsid with average diameter 100 nm consists of 162 hollow hexagonal … Read moreStructure and Genome of Human Cytomegalo Virus

Biochemical Test of Escherichia coli (E. coli)

Biochemical Test of Escherichia coli (E. coli)

Biochemical Test of Escherichia coli (E. coli) Basic Characteristics Properties (E. coli) Capsule Capsulated Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Negative (-ve) Coagulase Negative (-ve) Flagella Flagellated Gas Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Negative (-ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Hemolysis Negative (-ve) Indole Positive (+ve) Motility Motile MR (Methyl Red) … Read moreBiochemical Test of Escherichia coli (E. coli)

Structure and Genome of Measles Virus

Structure of Measles Virus Measles virus is the prototypic member of the Morbillivirus genus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Measles virus is a spherical with a diameter ranging from 120 to 1000 nm and has two major structural components: one is the helical ribonucleoprotein (RNP) core formed by the association of the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P) and large … Read moreStructure and Genome of Measles Virus

Biochemical Test of Streptococcus agalactiae

Biochemical Test of Streptococcus agalactiae

Biochemical Test of Streptococcus agalactiae Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus agalactiae) CAMP Positive (+ve) Capsule Positive (+ve) Catalase Negative (-ve) Coagulase Negative (-ve) Flagella Non-flagellated Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Beta Hemolysis Motility Non-motile OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative anaerobes Oxidase Negative (-ve) PYR Negative (-ve) Shape Cocci Spore Non-sporing Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Variable Fermentation … Read moreBiochemical Test of Streptococcus agalactiae

Culture media used in Microbiology with their uses

Culture media used in Microbiology with their uses

A7 and A8 agars A7 and A8 agars are selective and differential media used for the cultivation, identification, and differentiation of Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis.   Alkaline peptone water Alkaline peptone water is an enrichment broth used for the isolation of small numbers of Vibrio and Aeromonas organisms from stool specimens.   American Trudeau … Read moreCulture media used in Microbiology with their uses