Lower and Higher Invertebrates with their differences

Lower and Higher Invertebrates

Lower and Higher Invertebrates with their differences The invertebrates are usually classified as Lower Invertebrates and Higher Invertebrates. Lower Invertebrates The lower invertebrates are simple in body organization. They are generally small in size. These are thought to have originated in the main lines of evolution, near the base of the phylogenetic tree of Animal … Read moreLower and Higher Invertebrates with their differences

Characteristics of Invertebrates

Characteristics of Invertebrates

Characteristics of Invertebrates Habitat They are found in seas, fresh water, air, land from snow to desert. 80% are found in terrestrial habitat. Most successful invertebrates of the lands are Arthropods. Protozoans are free-living, parasites or commensals. Sponges and Coelenterates are aquatic animals. Numerical Strength Among 1.25 million animal species, 95% (1.2 million) are invertebrates. … Read moreCharacteristics of Invertebrates

Differences between Invertebrates and Vertebrates

Differences between Invertebrates and Vertebrates

Differences between Invertebrates and Vertebrates The animal kingdom has been divided into two major groups: Invertebrates (Non-Chordates) and Vertebrates (Chordates). Invertebrates are those that do not possess a vertebral column or backbone while Vertebrates are those where vertebral column or backbone is present. These two groups have some differences as follows: S.N. Characteristics Invertebrates (Non-Chordates) … Read moreDifferences between Invertebrates and Vertebrates

T.U. B.Sc. 1st Year Zoology (Non-Chordata and Protochordata) Syllabus

T.U. B.Sc. 1st Year Zoology (Non-Chordata and Protochordata) Syllabus

T.U. B.Sc. 1st Year Zoology (Non-Chordata and Protochordata) Syllabus Group A: Lower Non-Chordata Taxonomy: Concept, trends and significance of taxonomy. Concept of Protozoa and Metazoa and the origin of Metazoa. Classification of Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes and Annelida up to orders with characters and examples. (10 lec.) Protozoa: Habit, habitat, structure and reproduction of … Read moreT.U. B.Sc. 1st Year Zoology (Non-Chordata and Protochordata) Syllabus

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. There are twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon or oxygen atoms. The general formula for a carbohydrate can be written as Cx(H2O)y. They act as the source of energy (e.g. glucose), as a store of energy (e.g. starch and glycogen) and as structural units (e.g. … Read moreCarbohydrates

Staphylococcus aureus- Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Staphylococcus aureus- Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Staphylococcus aureus are catalase-positive, gram-positive cocci which frequently colonize the skin and mucosa of humans and animals. However, it is a highly successful opportunistic pathogen and thus involved in various diseases including toxin-mediated diseases (food poisoning, toxic shock syndrome, scalded skin syndrome), pyogenic diseases (impetigo, folliculitis, furuncles, carbuncles, wound infections), and other systemic diseases. The … Read moreStaphylococcus aureus- Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

Case-Control Study

Case-Control Study

Case-Control Study A case-control study (also known as a case-referent study) is a type of observational study in which two existing groups differing in outcome are identified and compared on the basis of some supposed causal attribute. It is designed to help determine if an exposure is associated with an outcome (i.e., disease or condition … Read moreCase-Control Study

E. coli- Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control

E. coli- Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control

Laboratory Diagnosis Urinary Tract Infection Most urine specimens are obtained from adult patients via the clean-catch midstream technique. Bacteriuria can be detected microscopically using Gram staining of uncentrifuged urine specimens, Gram staining of centrifuged specimens, or direct observation of bacteria in urine specimens. On staining, E coli appear as non-spore-forming, Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium Routine urine … Read moreE. coli- Lab Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control

Koch’s postulates and its limitations

Koch’s postulates and its limitations

Koch’s postulates and its limitations Koch’s postulate forms the very basis of the pathogenic microbiology. The causality of almost all infectious diseases is based on the postulate and theories developed by Robert Koch, who is rightly called the “father of pathogenic microbiology,” and his contemporaries. Developed in the late 19th century, it has stood the … Read moreKoch’s postulates and its limitations

Clostridium perfringens- Pathogenesis, Clinical Features

Clostridium perfringens- Pathogenesis, Clinical Features

Clostridium perfringens- Pathogenesis, Clinical Features Clostridium perfringens (previously named Clostridium welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming pathogenic bacterium, which is found commonly in decaying vegetation and soils.  Along with many environmental sources, it is also found in the intestines of humans and animals.  Clostridium perfringens is the causative agent of a number of human diseases, … Read moreClostridium perfringens- Pathogenesis, Clinical Features