General Characteristics of Phylum Protozoa

General Characters of Phylum Protozoa

General Characteristics of Phylum Protozoa Some of the characteristics are: There are about 50,000 known species of Phylum Protozoa. Protozoans exhibit mainly two forms of life; free-living (aquatic, fresh water, sea water) and parasitic (ectoparasites or endoparasites). They are also commensal in habitat. They are small, usually microscopic, not visualize without a microscope. They are … Read more General Characteristics of Phylum Protozoa

Pyruvate Broth Test

Pyruvate Broth Test

Pyruvate Broth Test Objectives To determine the ability of an organism to utilize pyruvate. It aids in the differentiation between Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Principle In the identification of microorganisms, the widely used method is the ability of bacteria to form organic compounds by metabolizing certain carbohydrates and related compounds. Pyruvate broth is a carbohydrate-free, … Read more Pyruvate Broth Test

Leucine Amino Peptidase (LAP) Test

Leucine Amino Peptidase (LAP) Test

Leucine Amino Peptidase (LAP) Test Objective To detect the presence of the enzyme leucine aminopeptidase for the preliminary characterization of catalase-negative, gram-positive cocci, especially non-beta-hemolytic cocci. Principle of Leucine Amino Peptidase (LAP) Test Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) test is a rapid test for the detection of enzyme leucine aminopeptidase. In general, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes, … Read more Leucine Amino Peptidase (LAP) Test

Types of Bias in Epidemiology

Common Types of Bias

Types of Bias in Epidemiology Any trend in the collection, analysis, interpretation, publication, or review of data that can lead to conclusions that are systematically different from the truth can be termed as bias. Bias is a major consideration in any type of epidemiologic study design. It has been defined as “any systematic error in … Read more Types of Bias in Epidemiology

Sulfur Reduction Test

Sulfur Reduction Test

Objectives To determine the ability of the organism to reduce sulfur for the production of hydrogen sulfide. To differentiate members of Enterobacteriaceae, especially the sulfur-reducing Salmonella and Proteus from the non-reducing Morganella morganii and Providencia rettgeri. Principle The Sulfur Reduction Test is performed using the SIM medium. SIM medium also tests for indole production and … Read more Sulfur Reduction Test

Biochemical Test of Bacteria

Biochemical Test of Bacteria

Biochemical Test of Bacteria Biochemical reactions are very important in the identification of bacterial isolates and in the identification of different bacterial species. These tests depend on the presence of certain enzymes, such as catalase, oxidase, urease, gelatinase, etc., produced by the bacteria. Different bacteria produce varying spectra of enzymes. For example, some enzymes are … Read more Biochemical Test of Bacteria

Fluorescence Microscope from LEAM Solution Inc

Fluorescence Microscope from LEAM Solution Inc

Fluorescence Microscope from LEAM Solution Inc About LEAM Solution LEAM Solution Inc. are innovators producing applicable microscope equipment using already existing microscopes in the market. Ten years ago, LE.AM Solution Inc. dived into the microscope market by selling low-priced microscopes and services. Back then, they were merely a small technology-related startup company as they had … Read more Fluorescence Microscope from LEAM Solution Inc

Field Trials

Field Trials

Field Trials Experimental studies set out to alter, rather than just observe, relevant exposures of interest, and to assess over time their impact on health status or disease outcomes.  The field trial is the one such type of interventional study designed to evaluate prevention strategies. They are studies carried out “on the ground” or “on the … Read more Field Trials

Salt Tolerance Test

Salt Tolerance Test

Salt Tolerance Test Objectives To determine the ability of an organism to grow in high concentrations of salt. It is used for the differentiation of Enterococci from Non-Enterococci. Principle Salt acts as a selective agent and interferes with membrane permeability and osmotic equilibrium. The salt tolerance medium is a selective and differential medium in which … Read more Salt Tolerance Test

Kligler Iron Agar Test

Kligler Iron Agar Test

Kligler Iron Agar Test Objective To differentiate the enteric gram-negative bacilli based on the production of hydrogen sulfide and fermentation of dextrose and lactose. Principle Kligler Iron Agar (KIA) test is used in differentiating certain members of the Enterobacteriaceae by demonstrating hydrogen sulfide production and the fermentation of dextrose and lactose. Kligler agar used for … Read more Kligler Iron Agar Test

Passive Transport

Passive Transport

Passive Transport Plasma membranes must allow certain substances to enter and leave a cell, and prevent some harmful materials from entering and some essential materials from leaving. In other words, plasma membranes are selectively permeable—they allow some substances to pass through, but not others. If they were to lose this selectivity, the cell would no longer … Read more Passive Transport

Membrane Proteins

Membrane Proteins

Membrane Proteins Biological membranes consist of a continuous double layer of lipid molecules in which membrane proteins are embedded. Although the lipid bilayer provides the basic structure of biological membranes, the membrane proteins perform most of the membrane’s specific tasks and therefore give each type of cell membrane its characteristic functional properties. The amounts and … Read more Membrane Proteins

Biochemical Test of Fusobacterium necrophorum

Biochemical Test of Fusobacterium necrophorum

Biochemical Test of Fusobacterium necrophorum Image Source: Microbe-Canvas Some of the characteristics are as follows: Basic Characteristics Properties (Fusobacterium necrophorum) Bile Growth Variable Capsule Negative (-ve) Catalase Negative (-ve) Flagella Negative (-ve) Gas Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Variable Gram Staining Gram-negative bacteria H2S Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Positive (+ve) (alpha- and beta-hemolysis may be observed) Indole … Read more Biochemical Test of Fusobacterium necrophorum

Biochemical Test of Aeromonas hydrophila

Biochemical Test of Aeromonas hydrophila

Biochemical Test of Aeromonas hydrophila Image Source: Wikipedia Some of the characteristics are as follows: Basic Characteristics Properties (Aeromonas hydrophila) Capsule -ve Catalase +ve Citrate +ve Flagella +ve Gas +ve Gelatin Hydrolysis +ve Gram Staining Gram-negative H2S +ve Hemolysis +ve Indole +ve Maximum Growth Temperature 41°C Motility +ve Nitrate Reduction +ve OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Fermentative Oxidase … Read more Biochemical Test of Aeromonas hydrophila

Predictive Value

Predictive Value

Predictive Value There are arguably two kinds of tests used for assessing people’s health: diagnostic tests and screening tests. screening tests typically have advantages over diagnostic tests such as placing fewer demands on the healthcare system and being more accessible as well as less invasive, less dangerous, less expensive, less time-consuming, and less physically and … Read more Predictive Value