Blastomyces dermatitidis

Blastomyces dermatitidis is a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes blastomycosis, a chronically invasive fungal infection of the lungs, that disseminates into the skin and bones and it affects both humans and animals. The disease is predominantly endemic in North America (the United States and Canada) hence it has been coined as North America Blastomycosis. It … Read more Blastomyces dermatitidis

Coccidioidomycosis

Arthroconidia of Coccidioides

Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by inhalation of Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii spores. It affects both humans and animals. It is also known as Valley fever or cocci or California fever, or desert rheumatism, or San Joaquin Valley fever. The spores of the causative agents are commonly found in soil in endemic areas, where they … Read more Coccidioidomycosis

Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain)

Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain)

Hematoxylin and eosin staining technique functions to recognize different types of tissues and their morphological changes, especially in cancer diagnosis. Hematoxylin has a deep blue-purple color and stains nucleic acids by a complex, incompletely understood reaction. Eosin is pink and stains proteins nonspecifically. In a typical tissue, nuclei are stained blue, whereas the cytoplasm and … Read more Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain)

Brightfield Microscope (Compound Light Microscope)

Brightfield Microscope

Brightfield Microscope Definition Brightfield Microscope is also known as the Compound Light Microscope. It is an optical microscope that uses light rays to produce a dark image against a bright background. It is the standard microscope that is used in Biology, Cellular Biology, and Microbiological Laboratory studies. This microscope is used to view fixed and … Read more Brightfield Microscope (Compound Light Microscope)

Candidiasis and types of Candidiasis

Candidiasis and types of Candidiasis

Candidiasis definition Candidiasis is also known as moniliasis, is a fungal disease that is classified under opportunistic fungal infection, because of its occurrence in persons with an immune-suppressed system, especially newborns, HIV/AIDS patients, patients on antibiotic therapies, cancer therapy patients. It usually does not cause disease in healthy individuals. It is an overgrowth in the … Read more Candidiasis and types of Candidiasis

Penicillium chrysogenum

Penicillium chrysogenum

Figure: Penicillium chrysogenum. Image Source: Pinterest, created using biorender.com Penicillium chrysogenum is also known as Penicillium notatum, the first Penicillium fungi used for the isolation of penicillin antibiotics, which is used for the treatment of Gram-positive bacteria. It is also used in the production of other β-lactam antibiotics. It is an allergen and has pathogenic … Read more Penicillium chrysogenum

Endocytosis and Exocytosis (Endocytosis vs Exocytosis)

Endocytosis and Exocytosis (Endocytosis vs Exocytosis)

Image Source: Freepik Company S.L. Similarities of Endocytosis and Exocytosis Endocytosis and exocytosis mechanisms are forms of Active Transport, both using energy to transport particles in and out of the cell. They both have different types similar in that they both transport materials across the cell membrane by forming vesicle pores. Differences between Endocytosis and … Read more Endocytosis and Exocytosis (Endocytosis vs Exocytosis)

Dissecting microscope (Stereo or stereoscopic microscope)

Labeled Dissecting microscope (Stereo or stereoscopic microscope)

Dissecting microscope (Stereo microscope) These are also known as stereoscopic microscopes. This is a type of digital optical microscope designed with a low magnification power (5x-250x), by use of light reflected from the surface of the specimen, and not the light reflected the specimen. Its primary role is for dissection of specimens and viewing and … Read more Dissecting microscope (Stereo or stereoscopic microscope)

Cryptococcus neoformans

Gram’s stain (Panel A) and India ink stain (Panel B) revealed abundant encapsulated, round yeasts, with some budding forms.

Cryptococcus spp Cryptococcus spp is a fungal group that belongs to the Phylum Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes). They undergo sexual reproduction forming dikaryotic hyphae and basidiospores supported by a club-shaped basidium with hyphae that has a complex septate. There are four known species of Cryptococcus: Cryptococcus neorformans Cryptococcus gattii Cryptococcus albidus Cryptococcus laurentii Cryptococcus inuguttulatus C. albidus … Read more Cryptococcus neoformans

Aspergillus niger

Aspergillus niger is the most common species of aspergillus. Its name is adapted from the Latin name aspergillum, which means holy water sprinkler because it has a sprinkler like an appearance when viewed under a microscope. It is known commonly to cause black mold in fruits and vegetables like grapes, apricot, onions, and peanuts. It … Read more Aspergillus niger

Aspergillus flavus

Aspergillus flavus

Aspergillus flavus is the second most common species of Aspergillus in humans after Aspergillus fumigatus. Aspergillus flavus is a mildly pathogenic, saprophytic mold, commonly known to cause diseases in plants such as grains, cereals, trees, and nuts.  They cause opportunistic infections in crops. They infect the plants before and after harvesting when they are in … Read more Aspergillus flavus