Dendritic Cells- Definition, Structure, Immunity, Types, Functions

Dendritic Cells

What are Dendritic Cells? Definition of Dendritic cells Dendritic cells are key antigen-presenting cells of the immune system that inform other effector immune cells to fight against invasive pathogens. These are also called professional antigen-presenting cells as these present antigens or parts of antigen to the receptors on different immune cells in order to elicit an immune response against them. Dendritic cells represent a distinct type of white blood cells capable of alerting the immune system about the presence of … Read more

Macrophages- Definition, Structure, Immunity, Types, Functions


What are Macrophages? Macrophages Definition Macrophages are mononuclear cells functioning as professional phagocytes in order to remove dying, dead or harmful pathogens. Macrophages are a type of white blood cell of the immune system where they engulf and digest particles that are detected as antigens by other blood cells. These are larger phagocytic cells that occur in essentially all types of tissues, and their structure and shape depend on the stage of maturation of the cells. Macrophages found in different … Read more

Natural Killer (NK) Cells- Definition, Structure, Immunity, Functions

Natural Killer (NK) Cells

What are Natural Killer (NK) Cells? Definition of NK Cells Natural killer (NK) cells are a group of innate lymphocyte cells with cytolytic activity against virus-infected cells and physiologically stressed cells like tumor cells. Initially, NK cells were described as larger granular lymphocytes with cytotoxic activity against tumor cells. However, these have since been recognized as a separated lineage of lymphocytes with cytotoxicity as well as cytokine-producing effector functions. Natural killer cells are a part of the group consisting of … Read more

Prevention and Control of COVID-19

Prevention and Control of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2)

Since there is currently no vaccine to prevent coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the best way to prevent illness is to avoid being exposed to this virus. As the primary mode of transmission is droplet transmission, the preventive measures revolve around the avoiding of the transfer of the droplets. Figure: Prevention and Control of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), Image created with The following measures are to be adopted to avoid the transmission of these droplets: Washing hands often with soap and water for … Read more

Buffy Coat- Definition, Preparation, Uses

Buffy Coat

Buffy Coat Definition A buffy coat suspension is a concentrated suspension of leukocytes and platelets that make up a part of the anticoagulated blood sample obtained by the process of density gradient centrifugation. The term buffy coat arose from the fact that the suspension has a color (yellowish beige) that is similar to buff. Buffy coats primarily contain white blood cells and platelets when separated from the whole blood sample via centrifugation. The generation of buffy coat from the whole … Read more

Bordetella pertussis- An Overview

Bordetella pertussis

What is Bordetella pertussis? Bordetella pertussis is a pathogenic Gram-negative aerobic bacterium that is the causative agent of the disease pertussis or whooping cough. B. pertussis is the type species of Bordetella that consists of minute mesophilic coccobacillus that facilitates the colonization of animal tissues. B. pertussis is one of the eight species belonging to the genus Bordetella and one of the seven pathogenic species, most of which are associated with respiratory infections in humans and other animals. These are … Read more

Lactobacillus acidophilus- An Overview

Lactobacillus acidophilus

What is Lactobacillus acidophilus? Lactobacillus is a taxonomically diverse group of Gram-positive, non-sporing rods that are defined by the formation of lactic acid as the sole end product of carbohydrate metabolism. Lactobacillus acidophilus is one of the most important species of Lactobacillus which has been extensively used to produce probiotics with numerous health benefits. L. acidophilus is a part of the normal microbiota of human beings, colonizing different parts of the body like the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and female … Read more

Types of PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) – definition and uses

Types of PCR (Polymerase chain reaction)- definition and uses

List of Types of PCR Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) PCR Allele-specific PCR Alu PCR Assembly PCR Asymmetric PCR COLD PCR Colony PCR Conventional PCR Digital PCR (dPCR) Fast-cycling PCR High-fidelity PCR High-Resolution Melt (HRM) PCR Hot-start PCR In situ PCR Intersequence-specific (ISSR) PCR Inverse PCR LATE (linear after the exponential) PCR Ligation-mediated PCR Long-range PCR Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) Miniprimer PCR Multiplex-PCR Nanoparticle-Assisted PCR (nanoPCR) Nested PCR Overlap extension PCR Real-Time PCR (quantitative PCR or qPCR) Repetitive sequence-based PCR Reverse-Transcriptase … Read more

Cilia- Definition, Structure, Formation, Types, Functions, Examples


Cilia Definition Cilia are tiny hair-like appendages present on the eukaryotic cell surface that provides a means of locomotion to different protozoans and animals. The term ‘cilia’ is a Latin term meaning eyelash indicating the tiny eyelash-like appearance of the structure. Cilia are most prominent in protozoans of the phylum Ciliophora which are characterized by the presence of cilia. Ciliated cells are found in different tissues in complex animals like vertebrates, where they have distinct functions. Cilia are different from … Read more

Sample collection and Diagnosis of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2)

Sample collection and Diagnosis of COVID-19

Medical Disclaimer: The information presented on the website is only for academic and study purposes and must not be used for the purpose of diagnosis. If you are not feeling well, please consult with your physician or doctor. Specimen Collection Since COVID-19 is an infectious respiratory tract infection, respiratory material should be collected, at a minimum: upper respiratory specimens: nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs or wash in patients still capable of movement. lower respiratory specimens: sputum (if produced) or endotracheal aspirate … Read more